South Yemen (Arabic: اليمن الجنوبي, al-Janub al-Yaman), formally known as the Democratic Republic of Yemen (جمهورية اليمن الديمقراطية, Jumhūrīyat al-Yaman ad-Dīmuqrāṭīyah), is a sovereign state located within the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. The nation is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, Oman to the east, North Yemen to the west, and maritime borders with Somalia and Ethiopia's Djibouti Province to the south.
South Yemen was established after it achieved independence from the United Kingdom in 1967, prior to which it was a British Protectorate called South Arabia. Right after achieving independence, South Yemen established itself as a Communist state backed by the Soviet Union. After remaining divided for almost 30 years, South Yemen and North Yemen reunited to form the short-lived Republic of Yemen in 1990. Soon a civil war broke out in 1994 after the south declared its independence, beginning a five month war that ended with the south regaining its independence.
After reestablishing its independence, South Yemen quickly established itself as a liberal democracy (taking many elements from the USSR). South Yemen is regarded as "one of the most free nations in the middle east". Because of the introduction of many liberal policies, the nation was one of only two (the other being Iraq) to not be affected by the ever growing Arab Spring.