Republic of China
Zhōnghuá Mínguó

Timeline: This is the Dream
Flag of the Republic of China National Emblem of the Republic of China
Flag Emblem
Location of the Republic of China (This is the Dream)
Location of the Republic of China (dark green)
Claimed territory (light green)
Anthem "National Anthem of the Republic of China"
Capital Taipei (de facto)
Nanjing (de jure)
Largest city Shanghai
  others HakkaHokkienZhuangFuzhouVarious Others
Chinese Folk Religions (ConfucianismTaoismBuddhism)
  others ChristianityIslam
Demonym Chinese
Government Unitary presidential
one-party republic
  legislature Legislative Yuan
President Liu Shitai (KMT)
Premier Bai Sun-lingfu (KMT)
Vice Premier Ma Minzhou (KMT)
3,121,612 km²
  water (%) 2.4%
Population 806,159,214 (2010 census) 
Established Wuchang Uprising
(October 10, 1911)
Republic Established
(January 1, 1912)
(December 25, 1947)
Retreat to Taiwan
(December 7, 1949)
Return to Mainland
(October 12, 1973)
Currency Yuan (¥) (RCY)
Time Zone (UTC+6 to +8)
  summer (UTC+7 to +9)
Calling Code +8
Internet TLD .cn
South China, officially the Republic of China (ROC; Chinese: 中華民國; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó) is a partially recognized sovereign state in East Asia. It is the world's second most populous country, with a population of over 806 million. The ROC is a dominant-party state governed by the Kuomintang Party, with its seat of government in the 'provisional capital' of Taipei rather than the official capital city of Nanjing.

China is a cradle of civilization, with its known history beginning with an ancient civilization that flourished in the fertile basin of the Yellow River. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies known as dynasties. Since 221 BCE, when the Qin Dynasty first conquered several states to form a Chinese empire, the country has expanded, fractured and reformed numerous times. In 1911, an uprising overthrew the last dynasty in favour of a republic.

Throughout the 1920's and 1930's, local warlords ruled China in lieu of a centralised government. From 1926 to 1928, China came under nominal Kuomintang control following the Northern Expedition. In 1937, Japan invaded and occupied much of Eastern China until their surrender in 1945. From 1946 to 1949, Communist insurgents drove Nationalist forces under Chiang Kai-shek into exile on the island of Taiwan. In 1973, the ROC invaded and re-occupied much of Southern China up to the Yellow River which largely serves as the South China's border with North China to present day.

South China is largely recognized as having the ninth largest economy in the world and as such is a member of the G-20. Since the 1980's, it has also become one of the world's fastest-growing major economies largely from an extensive export and import market. China has been a recognized nuclear weapons state since 1981, and maintains the world's largest standing army. The ROC is also a founding member of the United Nations and has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since 1945.

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