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|Republic of South Africa|
Republiek van Suid-Afrika (Afrikaans)Timeline: Axis vs Allies Resurrection (Map Game)
iRiphabliki yomZantsi Afrika (Xhosa)
iRiphabhuliki yaseNingizimu Afrika (Zulu)
Rephaboliki ya Aforika Borwa (Tswana)
and 7 others
OTL equivalent: South Africa, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Angola, Lesotho, Swaziland, Mauritius, and Seychelles
Ex Unitate Vires
(Latin: From Unity, Strength)
Die Stem van Suid-Afrika
"The Call of South Africa"
Location of South Africa
|Capital||Cape Town (legislative)|
|Official languages||11 official languages
|Ethnic groups||Black African
Indian or Asian
|Government||Unitary constitutional parliamentary republic|
|-||Deputy President||Oliver Tambo|
|-||Upper house||National Council|
|-||Lower house||National Assembly|
|-||South Africa Act 1909||31 May 1910|
|-||Statute of Westminster||11 December 1931|
|-||Republic||31 May 1950|
|-||Total|| 2,738,274 km2
1,057,254 sq mi
|GDP (PPP)||1954 estimate|
|Currency||South African pound|
South Africa was colonized by the Dutch East India Company in 1652 under the command of Jan van Riebeeck, who established the first European settlement in South Africa, Cape Town, at the Cape of Good Hope in the southwest of modern South Africa. The economy of Cape Town was built upon the transportation of slaves passing through on Dutch vessels from Indonesia, Madagascar, and India, who aided in the development of the early economy of Cape Colony. The Dutch expanded their colony east along the South African coast, eventually discovering the native Xhosa people, who were migrating through the region of the Fish River. Conflict soon erupted between the Dutch and the Xhosa, known as the Xhosa Wars, a series of minor skirmishes between the Dutch settlers and Xhosa natives over flocks, pasture grounds, and resources. The Xhosa Wars would become the longest series of conflicts in African colonial history, stretching from the late-1700s to the late-1800s.
The British soon arrived in the region, establishing a series of colonies of their own after occupying Cape Colony from the Dutch in the 1795 to prevent its fall into the hands of the French amidst the Napoleonic Wars raging on in Europe. With the fall of the Dutch Republic to the French forces, the British moved to secure their routes to their colonial holdings in Australia and India, allowing their merchants a place of rest during the middle of their voyages to and from Europe and East Asia. The colony was returned directly to the Dutch in 1803, the Dutch East India Company having declared bankruptcy in 1795. The British would return to the region and annex Cape Colony in 1806, and continue expanding the territory in the region. Several additional conflicts between the Xhosa and the British forces would flare up in this time, forcing the British to construct a series of forts to defend their territory from the native population.
Eventually, the British would turn their attention to the governance of their colony, while the Boers, Dutch settlers who had fled Cape Colony following its annexation by the British Empire in the 1820s, and established their settlements in the northern parts of the region, far from the grasp of the British. Conflicts arose once again between the Boers and native tribes of the Zulu and Sotho people, over control of the lands all three claimed for themselves. Under the direction of Shaka Zulu, the Zulu achieved as series of stunning victories against their traditional enemies, carving out a nation for themselves, and indirectly causing the Mfecane, a massive migration of tribes fleeing the Zulu armies rampaging throughout the region. The Matabele people who were an offshoot of the Zulu, fled northwards to establish a kingdom in the region Matabeleland.
The Boers would set up a group of republics in northern South Africa, where they had hoped themselves free of British imperialism. With the start of the Mineral Revolution, resulting from the discovery of diamonds in 1867 and and gold in 1884, economic growth and migration into the interior of the country began as a great speed. This saw the direct attempt by European settlers to get a grip on the native populations resisting their expansion. Combined with the attempt to control the great mineral resources responsible for the economic growth of the nation, war erupt almost immediately. The Anglo-Zulu Wars in 1879 began as the British moved into the interior and made attempts to get the Zulu to fall in line.
It was hoped that a series of campaigns and political effort might force the natives and the Boers into federating and coming under the British aegis, only to fail spectacularly when the South African Republic and the Zulu Kingdom resisted British efforts. The Zulu victory at Isandlwana destroyed any British attempts to facilitate a peaceful integration of the Zulu kingdom into the British Empire. Likewise, Boer resistance in the First Boer War in 1880 prevented the British from getting hold of the Boers in South Africa. However, the Zulu were defeated by the end of the Zulu wars, and the Boers were beaten by the end of the Second Boer War in 1902 when the British returned with greater numbers and superior firepower.
Union Act of 1909
With the end of the fighting in South Africa, and the majority of the land governed by the British, the British authorities moved to unite the land under a single government, culminating in the South Africa Act 1909, formally establishing the Union of South Africa. The new nation was granted nominal independence from British rule, formed as a dominion for the purpose of delegating most of the domestic governing to the government in Pretoria. Though united, the nation itself was heavily divided along ethnic grounds, with the Natives' Land Act in 1913 greatly restricting the ability of black Africans to own land in their own country. Blacks at the time of that act being passed by the government of South Africa, only controlled 7% of the land, despite making up more than 90% of the population. However, the amount of land they controlled would increase in time.
In the years following the Union Act of South Africa, the nation would industrialize and expand its economic infrastructure with the peace had by the unity. By 1931, South Africa was a fully sovereign state, with complete control over its domestic and foreign relations in the wake of the Statute of Westminster, abolishing all British authority over the nation. Since that time, South Africa has governed its own affairs independent of the British Empire. The two major governing parties in South Africa, the South African Party and National Party, would merge to form the United Party, helping to heal the rift between the Afrikaners, the descendants of the original Dutch Boer settlers, and the rest of the white South Africans, those who immigrated to the land from mostly from Britain.
Union states are semi-independent territories with complete control over their internal affairs, but who delegate foreign issues to the central government in Pretoria. They each maintain their own parliaments and defense forces, all of which are directed by a locally elected Regional Governor. Currently, there are eight union states in the nation, South Africa itself included, though with many important differences.
|Union state||South Africa||1933||Capital: Pretoria|
Regional Governor: Albert Luluti
|South African Defense Forces (SADF)|
|Union state||Namibia||1933||Capital: Windhoek|
Regional Governor: Petrus Imker Hoogenhout
|Namibian Defense Forces (NDF)|
|Union state||Southern Angola||1943||Capital: Namibe|
Regional Governor: n/a
|Angolan Defense Forces (ADF)|
|Union state||Lesotho||1946||Capital: Maseru|
Regional Governor: Sir Charles Arden-Clarke
|Lesotho Defense Forces (LDF)|
|Union state||Swaziland||1946||Capital: Mbabane|
Regional Governor: Sobhuza II
|Swazi Defense Forces (SDF)|
|Union state||Mauritius||1946||Capital: Port Louis|
Regional Governor: Sydney Moody
|Mauritian Defense Forces (MDF)|
|Union state||Seychelles||1946||Capital: Victoria|
Regional Governor: Sir Percy Selwyn-Clarke
|Seychellois Defense Forces (SCDF)|
|Union state||Zimbabwe||1947||Capital: Salisbury|
Regional Governor: Sir Godfrey Huggins
|Zimbabwe Defense Forces (ZDF)|
The South African Defense Force (SADF), currently consists of 98,106 active personnel. Following the government push to rebuild and reorganize the military in 1933, the SADF was built up into one of the largest military forces in Africa, and one of the best trained in the world. No effort was spared in the formation of the military as it is today, and current, the South African military budget for the SADF as of 1948 was $3.288 billion, or 4.4% of the national GDP. Considerable thought was put into the manner in which the military was to be rebuilt, and the rationale behind the rapid military buildup by South Africa has ranged from desire to remain independent of any European powers, to counterbalance the threat of the Brazilian military across the Atlantic Ocean, to the security of the nation against the communist forces which have since overtaken the British government. With regards to the wider Union Defense Forces, the nation is able to raise a force of 753,010 personnel including reservists, along with 809 aircraft, 1,547 armored vehicles, and 160 warships.
The South African military maintains a large number of combat vehicles, warships, and aircraft, all locally produced. Currently, South Africa fields a total of 855 main battle tanks, 565 aircraft, and 93 warships ranging from aircraft carriers to diesel attack submarines. Major industrial complexes in the heartland of the nation provide all of the equipment needed for the SADF to operate effectively, with major corporations such as the Atlas Aircraft Corporation, providing aeroplane parts and designs. All military defense companies are owned by the state. The army fields a force of 685 Verwoester Md.I/II/III medium tanks and 100 Varke Md.I heavy tanks, which currently make up the entirety of the South African armored vehicle fleet. The list below only shows the equipment in use in the South African Defense Forces, and not the wider Union Defense Forces as a whole. All equipment shown is shared by the other union state members.
South African Army
The largest and most prestigious branch of the SADF is the South African Army (SAA), which is tasked with protecting the South African homeland. The SAA is made up of 42,096 active personnel, with another 332,672 men in the active reserve forces known as the Civilian Forces and Commando Forces, plus another 128,253 personnel in reserve. Sporting some of the best weaponry and equipment on the continent, the South African Army is the best trained military force in Africa. The army is well-equipped and well-motivated to defend the nation against potential invaders. With the communist coup in the United Kingdom, the need for the army to remain ever vigilant against possible invasion by the British communist forces has become a major priority.
South African Air Force
The South African Air Force (SAAF) consists of 525 aircraft and 7,584 active personnel. The air force maintains a series of military airbases throughout the control, with particular focus on the western coast of the nation, where large tracts of the sparsely populated land must be patrolled. Currently, the SAAF maintains the largest air force of an independent state outside of the European colonies in Africa.
The South African Navy (SAN) is the arm of the military responsible for the maritime security of South Africa. The fleet of the SAN consists of 93 warships total, plus a number of unarmed ships responsible for the logistical needs of the navy. A total of 12,312 personnel, not counting civilian workers, are employed by the navy. Most of the fleet is based out of the ports of Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, Durban, and Walvis Bay, where dedicated naval facilities have been constructed. The largest of these bases in in Walvis Bay, where the South African nation has its longest coast. Given the threat of an amphibious invasion in Namibia, the navy focuses much of its manpower and resources in that region of South Africa.
The South African economy is the largest on the continent, with a total GDP of $151.913 billion. The average South African makes a total of $5,651 a year, making South Africa a high-middle income nation following the Great Depression. The South African economy was once reliant upon the mining industry, with the exportation of diamonds, iron ore, and silver accounting for the bulk of the nation's exports. However, with the expansion of the nation's economy under the Smuts administration have since the development of the nation's industrial infrastructure, and seen great diversification of the economy. South Africa has also developed a major automotive industry, as well as shipbuilding, aerospace, agricultural, service, and chemical industries. The nation also sports the world's only coal liquefaction plants, allowing for South Africa to transform its huge coal stockpiles into petroleum, providing a measure of energy independence from the rest of the world.
The economies of the Union as a whole are heavily integrated with one another, forcing dependence upon the group on one another. All states require the industrial complexes of South Africa though they all possess their own, while South Africa depends upon the agricultural imports from Zimbabwe and southern Angola. Namibia boasts a strong mining industry, but lacks the agricultural sector needed to support itself. However, as a unit, Union of South Africa is totally capable of self-sufficiency, with fertile agricultural lands, huge chunks of the worlds mineral supply ranging from producing 77% of the world's platinum and 39% of its palladium, having the industries needed to support a modern economy, and a large and strong service sector capable of producing most of the goods found in other nations in Europe and North America.