The Federal Republic of Somalia (Arabic: جمهورية الصومال الفدرالية, Jumhūriyyat aṣ-Ṣūmāl al-Fiderāliyya; Somali: Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya), commonly known as Somalia (الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl; Soomaaliya), is a nation located in Eastern Africa along the Horn of Africa. Initially claimed by Italy and the United Kingdom, the country became united in 1960. Throughout much of the Cold War Somalia was a communist state first back by the Soviet Union and later allied with the United States. Communism ended in the 1990s, resulting in a decade long civil war and years with no centralized government.
Southern Somalia became a haven for Radical Islam during this time, expanding following the attacks on September 11, 2001 and the overthrow of Sudan by the United States. Following Al-Qaeda-backed attacks on Ethiopia and the Soviet Union in 2003, both nations launched a joint military intervention in 2004. A federal government was established in the mid 2000s, with Soviet and Ethiopian troops remaining in the country until 2011.
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