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Somalia (21st Century Crisis)

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United Federal States of Somalia
Kanisi Maraykanka Federaalka Soomaaliya
الولايات المتحدة الاتحادية من الصومال
MottoStrength is Unity
AnthemLand of Punt
CapitalMogadishu
Official languages Somali, Arabic
Ethnic groups  95% Somali
5% others (Ethiopian, Afars, Oromo)
Demonym Somalia, Somalian
Membership African Union
Arab League
United Nations
Government Presidential Republic
 -  President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud
 -  Vice President Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke
Somalia (Somali: Soomaaliya, Arabic: الصومال‎), officially the United Federal States of Somalia (Somali: Kanisi Maraykanka Federaalka Soomaaliya, Arabic: الولايات المتحدة الاتحادية من الصومال) is a country located in northeastern Africa.

It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djibouti to the northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Indian Ocean to the east, and Kenya to the southwest. Somalia has the longest coastline on Africa's mainland, and its terrain consists mainly of plateaus, plains and highlands. Climatically, hot conditions prevail year-round, with periodic monsoon winds and irregular rainfall.

Over the course of its history, Somalia was a thriving nation - was marked by many kingdoms and sultanates in the area. After the overthrow of the Barre government, the various militant groups of Somalia decided to surrender, and work together to build the prospering nation that it is today. In order to restore clan-based traditions, Somalia was divided into federal states.

Somalia is a member of many groups, including the Global Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the African Union, the Arab League, and the East African Community.

Demographics

Religion

Freedom of religion is guaranteed in Somalia's Constitution. About 90% of Somalia follows Sunni Islam, a long-standing tradition of Somali culture. The presence of Islam in the Horn of Africa is as old as the religion itself. About 10% of the country follows Christianity, the presence of Christianity among ethnic Somalis was spearheaded by missionaries from the various colonial powers that ruled the Horn of Africa, with each reflecting a distinct colonial influence. Of the Christians of Somalia, there are Roman Catholics (as a result of French colonial rule), Protestants (as a result of British annexation), as well as Copts from Egypt and Sudan and Orthodox Ethiopians. 

There have been attempts by pan-Islamist groups in Somalia to outlaw all religion, outside of Islam, in the country. 

Language

Somali and Arabic are the two official state languages of Somalia. Both languages are part of the Afro-Asiatic family. Somali is the native toungue of over 95% of the population, and is currently written in the Latin script. Historically, an Arabic script known as Wadaad's writing was implemented for the Somali language. Many religious scholars and tradition-based clans and tribes still use Wadaad's writing. 

Due to the centuries-long connections with the Arab World, Arabic is the second official state language and is often-not spoken by elite class and religious leaders. 

Additionally, English and French are also taught in schools as optional foreign languages, and French in particular, has become a popular bussiness language. 

Other languages spoken include Afar, Oromo, and Amharic by the Ethiopian community. 

Politics

Military and Law Enforcement

The Armed Forces of Somalia (Somali: Ciidamada Qalabka Sida ee Soomaaliya, Arabic: القوات المسلحة في الصومال) are the main armed branch of the Somali government, placed under the command of the President. They consist of the Somali Ground Army, Somali Air Force, Somali Navy, the Citizens Constabulary and Special Forces Group. The Somali Navy and Special Forces Group often deals with handling of pirates operating in the Gulf of Aden and to counter terrorist activity. The Citizens Constabulary deals with peace-keeping in civilian grounds.

Somalia's military is currently funded by western nations, and after the Somali Civil War, the government and military made efforts to create a uniformed armed forces, and keep updated its inventory and technologies. 

The Somalia Federal Police (Somali: Soomaaliya Police Federaalka, Arabic: الشرطة الاتحادية الصومال) is the national law enforcement group of the nation. In addition, towns and cities also have their own law enforcement units. 

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