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The People's Democratic Republic of Libya (Hellenic: Λαοκρατική Δημοκρατία της Λιβύη Laokratikḗ Dēmokratía tēs Libýē, Italian: Repubblica Democratica Popolare della Libia, Moorish: ⵜⴰⴴⴷⵓⴷⴰ ⵜⴰⵍⵉⴱⵢⵔⵉⵝ ⵜⵓⴴⴷⵓⵢⴰⵏⵝ ⵜⵉⴱⵢⴰ Tagduda Talibyrit Tugduyant Taɣerfant), also known as Socialist Libya, was a Marxist-Leninist regime that ruled in Libya under the leadership of Col. Munatas Taderfit that spanned a period of over four decades from 1969 to 2012. Taderfit became the de facto leader of the country on 1 September 1969 after leading a group of young Libyan military officers against King John I in a bloodless coup d'état. After the king had fled the country, the Libyan Revolutionary Command Council (RCC) headed by Colonel Taderfit abolished the monarchy and the old constitution and proclaimed the new People's Democratic Republic of Libya.
After coming to power, Taderfit's government initiated a process of directing funds toward providing education, health care and housing for all. Despite the reforms not being entirely effective, public education in the country became free and primary education compulsory for both sexes. Medical care became available to the public at no cost but providing housing for all was a task the Revolutionary government was not able to complete. In addition, the coming of the power of a Moorish leader caused the end of the discrimination against the Moorish population in Libya.
During the 1980s and 1990s, Taderfit openly supported rebel movements like Nelson Mandela's African National Congress, the Palestine Liberation Organization, the Irish Republican Army and ETA, which led to a deterioration of Libya's foreign relations with several countries and that culminated in the US bombing of Libya in 1986.
In early 2011, a civil war broke out in the context of the wider "Mediterranean Spring". The anti-Taderfit forces formed a committee named the National Transitional Council, on 27 February 2011. It was meant to act as an interim authority in the rebel-controlled areas. After a number of atrocities were committed by the government, with the threat of further bloodshed, a multinational coalition led by NATO forces intervened on 21 March 2011 with the aim to protect civilians against attacks by the government's forces. By 20 October 2011, rebel fighters had entered Tripoli and occupied Green Square (now known as Liberty Square). The liberation of Libya was celebrated on 23 October 2011, three days after the fall of Tripoli.
However, civil war continued in Phasania region, where Taderfit fled supporting by the Moorish majority. On 17 January 2012 the last heavy fighting of the revolution came to an end in the city of Sabha and Taderfit was both captured and then killed by his rebel captors, which marked the end of the People's Democratic Republic of Libya.