Slovenia (Slovene: Slovenija; German: Slowenien; Latin: Slovenia; Esperanto: Slovenio) is a federal state of Austria-Hungary. Formerly known as Cariola (Kranjska). It is bordered by Italy and the states of German Austria, Hungary, Illyria and Istria.
Initially called Carniola (Slovene, Kranjska; German: Krain; Italian and Latin: Carniola; Hungarian: Krajna), at the first meeting of the National Assembly it was unanimously approved for the new state to be called Slovenia
Slovenia is parliamentary representative democratic state, according to its state constitution is organized as follows.
- The State Governor (Ban), who is the head of the state and imperial representative, is appointed for a five year term by the Emperor-King, on advice and consultation of the Prime Minister. The Governor can dissolve and call for immediate elections of the National Assembly on a proposal of the Prime Minister.
- The State Government consists of the Prime Minister (Predsednik vlade) and the National Council. The Prime Minister is appointed by the State Governor, from the leader of the party or coalition with majority in the National Assembly. The rest of the National Council is appointed by the Governor on recommendation of the Prime Minister.
- The unicameral National Assembly (Državni zbor) is the supreme legislative body of the State. Its 90 members are elected by universal suffrage using a proportional representation system for a five-year term, unless previously dissolved by the Governor;
- The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The Supreme State Court and Constitutional Court are nominated by the State Governor, on a list proposed by the National Assembly.
The main political parties are:
- National Progressive Party (Narodno napredna stranka, NNS), the main liberal party.
- Slovene People's Party (Slovenska ljudska stranka, SLS), the former Pan-Slovene People's Party (Vseslovenska ljudska stranka, VLS). It is a nationalist and Christian Social party, based on mass support. Its basic program is the support for workers and farmers and greater autonomy for Slovene within the Habsburg Monarchy. Since 1920 is the main governing party in Slovene
- Slovene Peasant Party (Slovene: Slovenska kmetska stranka, SKS), an agrarian party
- Social Democratic Party of Slovenia (Socialdemokratska stranka Slovenije, SDSS)
- Communist Party of Slovenia (Komunistična partija Slovenije, KPS)
- Deutsch Wahlliste (Germán Electoral List), one of the main German parties, and the
- German Democratic Freedom Party (German: Deutsche Demokratische Freiheitspartei, DDFP), liberal and socio liberal party, part of a network of sister parties in Bohemia and Silesia;
Before 1922 Slovenia, consisting of the former Duchy of Carniola and parts of Austrian Littoral, was divided into eleven districts consisting of 359 municipalities, with the provincial capital serving as the residence of the imperial governor (Landeshauptmann).
In 1922 the Law on the Administration of the Slovene Lands simplified the administrative units, territoriality reorganized municipalities, granted local autonomy, and clearly spelled out administrative, political and financial duties and acts of each unit. According to this act Slovenia was divided in traditional regions and municipalities. The four traditional regions only serve for statistical and electoral purposes, the municipalities (občine, singular – občina) are the basic administrative unity and the only ones that have local autonomy. There are 212 municipalities, of which 11 have urban status. Municipalities can be further divided into local communities and districts.
Each municipality is headed by a mayor (župan), elected every four years by popular vote, and a municipal council (občinski svet). In the majority of municipalities, the municipal council is elected through the system of proportional representation; only a few smaller municipalities use the plurality voting system. In the urban municipalities, the municipal councils are called town (or city) councils. Every municipality also has a Head of the Municipal Administration (načelnik občinske uprave), appointed by the mayor, who is responsible for the functioning of the local administration.
Agriculture thrives better in Upper than in Lower Carniola. The Vipava Valley is especially famous for its wine and vegetables, and for its mild climate. The principal exports are all kinds of vegetables, clover-seed, lumber, carvings, cattle, and honey. Its mineral productions is mainly iron, coal, quicksilver, manganese, lead, and zinc.
Industrialization is accompanied by construction of railroads to link cities and markets, but the urbanization is limited. Upper Carniola has the most industries, among the products being lumber, linen, woolen stuffs, and lace, bells, straw hats, wicker-work, and tobacco.