Slovakia (Slovak: Slovensko; German: Slowakei; Hungarian: Szlovákia; Ukrainian: Словаччина; Latin: Slovacia; Esperanto: Slovakio) is a federal state of Austria-Hungary. It is bordered by the states of Bohemia, West Galicia (later it became part of Poland), East Galicia, Hungary and German Austria.
Slovakia is parliamentary representative democratic state:
- The Slovak head of state is the Governor (Guvernér), named by the Emperor-King on advice of the Slovak National Council.
- Executive power lies with the head of government, the Premier (Premiér), who is usually the leader of the winning party, but he/she needs to form a majority coalition in the parliament. The prime minister is appointed by the Governor. The remainder of the State Council is appointed by the Governor on the recommendation of the Premier. The Premier is accountable to the National Council.
- Slovakia's highest legislative body is the 100-seat unicameral Slovak National Council (Slovenská národná rada). Delegates are elected for a four-year term on the basis of proportional representation. The National Council approves domestic legislation, constitutional laws, and the annual budget.
- The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The highest judicial body is the Supreme State Court, whose judges are elected by the National Council. A Constitutional Court, which rules on constitutional issues. The 13 members of this court are appointed by the Governor from a slate of candidates nominated by parliament.
The main parties of Slovakia are:
- Slovak National Party (Slovenská národná strana, SNS), a conservative and nationalist party;
- Slovak People's Party (Slovenská ľudová strana, SĽS) The program of the party included liberal reforms (freedom of speech, universal suffrage etc.), national requirements and religious (Catholic) requirements;
- Slovak Farmers' Party (Slovenská roľnícka strana, SRN), the main party of agrarian interests and the peasants
- Social Democratic Party of Slovakia (Sociálnodemokratická strana slovenska, SDSS);
- Communist Party of Slovakia (Komunistická strana slovenska KSS);
- Zipser German Party (German: Zipser deutsche Partei);
- Hungarian-German Social Democratic Party (German: Ungarisch-Deutsche Partei der Sozialdemokraten UDPSD, Hungarian: Magyar és Német Szociál-Demokrata Párt MNSDP); and
- Hungarian National Party (Hungarian: Magyar Nemzeti Párt, MNP, Slovak: Maďarská národná strana, MNS)
Slovakia is divided into six counties (Slovak: župy). The counties are divided in districts (okresy, singular okres).
- Bratislavská (Capital Bratislava)
- Nitrianska (Nitra)
- Považská (Turčiansky Svätý Martin)
- Zvolenská (Zvolen)
- Podtatranská (Liptovský Svätý Mikuláš)
- Košická (Košice).
Slovak agriculture consisted primarily of small to mid-size family farms. Over 40% of the land in Slovakia is cultivated. The southern part of Slovakia is known for its rich farmland. Growing wheat, rye, corn, potatoes, sugar beets, grains, fruits and sunflowers. Vineyards are concentrated in Little Carpathians, Tokaj, and other southern regions. The breeding of livestock, including pigs, cattle, sheep, and poultry is also important.
Hard coal suitable for extraction is found near Kosice. Brown coal and lignite deposits are located near Handlova. Iron ore continues to be mined in the Slovenske Rudohorie (Slovak Ore Mountains). There are also deposits of copper and manganese ores in the Slovenske Rudohorie.
Slovakia became industrialized mostly in the second half of the 20th century. Heavy industry (including coal mining and the production of machinery and steel) was built thanks to grants and funding provided by the federal government.