Kingdom of Singapore
Kerajaan Singapura
كراجأن سيڠاڤورا
Anthem"Little Glory Island"
Largest city Singapore City
Official languages Malay, English
Recognised regional languages Tamil, Cantonese
Ethnic groups  Malay (95%)
Chinese (3%)
Tamil (2%)
Membership ASEAN
Alam Melayu
 -  Sultan Mohamad Yusuf
 -  Crown Prince Omar Mohamad
Currency Singapore Dollar
The Kingdom of Singapore (Malay: Kerajaan Singapura, Jawi: كراجأن سيڠاڤورا) is a sovereign state and island country in Southeast Asia. It covers the southernmost parts of the Malay Peninsula, as well as containing its own island. It borders Malaysia to the north, to the south lies the Riau Islands of Indonesia. It is a sultanate, and its current sultan is Mohamad Yusuf.

The islands were settled from the second century AD by a series of local empires. In 1819, Sir Stamford Raffles founded Singapore as a trading post of the East India Company; after the company collapsed, the islands were ceded to Britain and became part of its Straits Settlements in 1826. During World War II, Singapore was occupied by Japan. It became independent from Britain in 1963, by uniting with other former British territories to form Malaysia, but was expelled two years later over ideological differences.

The modern-day Malay nation of Singapore was found by Yusof bin Ishak in 1965, who served as the first and last president of Singapore. In an act of Malay nationalism, he deported most of the city-state's Chinese Singaporean and Indian Singaporean population, leaving only a fraction to remain living in the country. He also crowned himself as "Sultan Yusuf I", establishing the Ishak Dynasty to "re-store the glory of the Malays of Singapore".

Singaporeans are mostly bilingual, with most speaking Malay as their first language and English as their second language. Malay and English are the official languages of Singapore.


Reign of Sultan Yusuf I

In 1965, Yusof bin Ishak became the first president of Singapore. An avid Malay nationalist and Muslim, he had ceased this time to "re-conquer" Singapore for the Malays, and the prevent the Chinese and Indian takeover of the nation. He imprisoned most of his non-Malay political colleagues, and placed the military under Malay leadership. He often had non-Malay officers ambushed, or either forced to relinquish their positions. The names of Chinese Singaporeans and Indian Singaporeans were chosen at random in a nationwide lottery, names of those chosen were to be deported. 

Lee Kuan Yew, leader of the Chinese resistance, led a failed armed rebellion against Sultan Yusuf I. As a result, he was deported to Indonesia. Yusof bin Ishak made various refugee deals with the Philippine and Indonesian governments, of whether they were willing to take in the Chinese deportees. Filipino prime minister Corazon Aquino saw this as an opportunity to convert these Chinese refugees to Roman Catholicism and introduce them to Philippine culture. Indonesian president Sukarno agreed to hire them to contribute building the still-developing nation of Indonesia.

By 1967, the deportations were complete, and less than 1/3 of Singapore was Chinese or Indian. The country had been re-populated with Malays, or other native Austronesians. Yusof bin Ishak wanted to restore the Malay royalty using the definition of "Kemelayuan", including by those that took place in Malaysia. Yusof officiated Malay as the lone official language, and crowned himself Sultan Yusuf I of Singapore. 

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