"The empire, long divided, must unite; long united must conquer. Thus, it has ever been." ---Luo GuanZhong, Ming official and author (d. 1350)
China is a land vast and varied, home to widely differing ethnic groups and cultures all with thousands of years worth of intertwining history. No other nation can boast China's breathtaking mountain passes, self-sufficient agrarian communities, and nationalistic cultural spirit.
Since the formation of a recognizable Nation-State System in China under the Qin Dynasty in the 1st Century IC, the nation became stuck in a convoluted and seemingly permanent sequence of events known as the Dynastic Cycle. A dynasty claiming the Mandate of Heaven would be founded, a period of relative peace and prosperity would follow; often heralding unprecedented cultural achievements and military might. Subsequently, that dynasty would falter due to droughts, famine, or rebellion only to fall to another similarly claiming the Mandate.
However, the events of one crushing and deeply consequential year would define Chinese politics for hundreds of years to come. It would bring about the foundation of a great and powerful empire, at its height controlling over 65 percent of the known world. Then it would reform itself, just like the brave new world it existed in, to a revolutionary form of Republic, bringing about social justice and equality.
While today many ignore this essential period of transformation and statehood, a serious study of events is necessary in order to truly understand the Republic that we live in today, or superiority in culture and world affairs, and for a more beneficial understanding of the Noble Savages of the world.
A New Kind of Nation
"A Contest of Barbarians"
Since 1271, the primarily Han nation of China had been ruled by Mongolian invaders. While the invaders -led by an enigmatic and strategically gifted Kublai Khan- were welcomed at first as liberators in the Northern Jin provinces, they had been largely despised and feared in the South. Having fought both Jurchen Jin invaders and Mongol raids for fifty years, the Chinese were wary of foreign influence and despised, even more, a foreign emperor.
However, contemporary sources give the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty more leniency. Their many benefits can be generalized into three broad categories. First, the Mongols