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Sikkim War (Two Borders)

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First Sikkim War
Sikkimwar
Chinese troops fall back in Tibet
Beginning:

August 1, 1968

End:

September 9th, 1970

Place:

Most of Siberia, Kamchatka, North-Eastern India, Kashmir, Tibet, China, Pakistan

Outcome:

Decisive Indo-Soviet Victory

  • Tibet given independence
  • Manchuria given independence
  • Uyghuristan given independence
  • Mao deposed and arrested
  • End of the First Chinese Communist Party
  • Background for the second Sikkim War
Combatants
  • Flag of the Soviet Union Soviet Union
  • Flag of India Republic of India
  • Flag of the Republic of China Republic of China (Taiwan)

Supported by

  • Flag of East Germany East Germany
  • Other Warsaw Pact Nations
  • Flag of the People's Republic of China China
  • Flag of Pakistan Pakistan

Supported by

Commanders
  • Flag of the Soviet Union Leonid Breznev
  • Flag of India Zakir Hussain
  • Flag of India Indira Gandhi
  • Flag of the People's Republic of China Mao Zedong
  • Flag of Pakistan Yahya Khan
Strength
  • USSR
    • 1,224,000 men
    • 4000 aircraft
    • 27,000 tanks and armored vehicles
  • India
    • 2,891,000 men
    • 500 aircraft
    • 22,000 tanks and armored vehicles
  • Taiwan
    • 50,000 men
    • 70 aircraft
    • 1000 tanks and armored vehicles
  • East Germany
    • 20,000 men
  • China
    • 3291,000 men
    • 1200 aircraft
    • 25,000 tanks or armored vehicles
  • Pakistan
    • 321,000 men
    • 100 aircraft
    • 1200 tanks or armored vehicles
Casualties and Losses
  • USSR
    • 313,000 men
    • 121 aircraft
    • 6000 tanks or armored vehicles
  • India
    • 456,000 men
    • 73 aircraft
    • 5600 tanks and armored vehicles
  • Taiwan
    • 5600 men
    • 17 aircraft
    • 147 tanks or armored vehicles
  • East Germany
    • 1300 men
  • China
    • 647,000 men
    • 287 aircraft
    • 7800 tanks or armored vehicles
  • Pakistan
    • 37,000 men
    • 12 aircraft
    • 340 tanks or armored vehicles

The First Sikkim War was a massive war that encompassed most of Asia and nearly led to WW-III. It is also called the Second Sino-Indian War and the First Sino-Russian War.

Background

PRC

China was at this period in an expansionist phase. Moreover, they were extremely confident in the war, having steamrolled Indian troops in the First Sino-Indian War. Meanwhile, their initial outnumbering of Russia on the Northern border led to a general feeling that the war would end swiftly. Mao and several others of the high Party leaders also hoped for a victory, which would help stem the massive discontent rising from Mao's unpopular Cultural Revolution and it's purges. Chinese army readiness at this oint, however, was different. The generals were split over the war; some believed that the Chinese army would still be outnumbered, despite it's size, losing their number one advantage, while also being poorly equipped and armed against their stronger Soviet neighbors.

Most generals, however, believed that the Himalayas would prevent Indian troops from breaking through into Tibet, while Soviet troops could be bogged down with fighting in the Palmirs and Kamchatka, and thus be defeated there, despite the state of the army.

India

India was, too, in a tense time. With their massive defeat against China in 1962 and then a meaningless war of attrition with Pakistan in 1965, the nation was discontented, especially with its slow economic growth as a result of very leftist leaning policies instituted by the government.

The Indian military had three main advantages- firstly, it's equipment was up to par with the Soviets, since it was mostly supplied by them; secondly, it had a large and well organized army; and thirdly, it had an excellent defensive position in Sikkim. The military were confident that, if unable to effect a victory, would at least be able to tie down enough Chinese troops to allow the Soviets to break into Beijing.

USSR

The USSR was also, militarily, ready for war, having the best equipment of the three sides and over half a million troops on the border. In addition, the government warned that they were ready and willing to use nuclear weapons in the event that China detonated their limited stock.

However, the people did not want such a war, that would exhaust the Union even further of resources. Public discontent rose sharply after this war.

ROC

The ROC was on the verge of losing its position on the UNSC. Desperate for a victory over the PRC, to regain some status, they saw this war as the best way to it, though they were unable to contribute much to the war, merely taking over after the Summer Coup destabilized the PRC.

The ROC's military, though not large, was certainly capable, being aided by, among many other nations, the USA.

Early Phases : August- November, 1968

The war started on August 1st, after Russia and India declared war on China after the latter nation set a deadline for the Soviet removal of all troops in the Palmirs.

Pakistani Entrance and Exit: November, 1968- July, 1969

War Heats Up: March- December, 1969

Zhuobao Crisis: December, 1969- January, 1970

Fall of Tibet: January- May, 1970

Fall of Manchuria: April- July, 1970

Summer Coup: June- August, 1970

Armistice and End of War: September, 1970

Aftermath

Short Term 

Long Term

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