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This was the final battle in the Crusades. Emperor Richard led his men into the final of three Muslim strongholds; the others were North Africa and Arabia.
During the opening stages, the ailing Saladin advised his leaders to surrender. The Muslims, thinking they could defeat the army, refused. Saladin was captured by Richard and was sent into London to be executed.
After 890 days under siege, with disease and starvation rampant, the Muslims surrendered on May 5th, 1195. Richard entered the city and declared his own later that day. A few years later, he built a city called New Birmingham, and turned the Great Mosque, into a church.
The Pope in Rome, happy that the Saracens had been throughly chastened and killed, called for the Crusades to end. He declared that the
"...Work is done. My fellow Christians, we have dealt these demons of the east a fatal blow, from which they cannot recover. God will now give us the power as we took the Holy Land. Now all Christians will gain all of God's words. We must watch their suffering, but if we could preserve their culture, we could advance our civilization..."
But the Crusades left a changed Europe; a German Superstate, a French Republic, and an English Empire.