List of Monarchs (1797-present)
Since the earliest days of the Persian Empire, the monarch held various titles, including that of Shahanshah (King of Kings, or in Western terms, Emperor), Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans) and Bozorg Arteshtārān (Head of the Warriors, or in Persian: بزرگ ارتشتاران). In the 1870's, as the nation became more and more industrialized and "Western", Naser al-Din Shah Qajar proposed a new title to reflect the increasing democracy of the Empire. In 1879 this was confirmed in a new "Imperial Title Act", where the shah would now be officially:
"Shah Naser Qajar, Ruler of the Ancient Lands of the Persian Nation , Protector of the Shi'ite and all Islamic Followers of Imperial Lands."
A more simple title simply became Shah Naser Qajar, and would be used in everyday language
After the addition of the lands of Afghanistan to the Empire in 1883, Shah Naser Qajar's title was again changed to reflect this in 1884, becoming:
"Shah Naser Qajar, Ruler of the Ancient Lands of the Persian and Afghan Nations and its People, Protector of the Shi'ite and all Islamic Followers of Imperial Lands."
The victory of Persia in the Second Global War, and the addition of Mesopotamia and lands around the Persian Gulf formerly part of the Ottoman Empire lead to the third, and so far, final change to the title with the accession of Shah Ahamad Qajar in 1921:
"Shah Ahamad Qajar, Ruler of the Ancient Lands of the Persian, Afghan, and Mesopotamian Nations, the Lands Surrounding the Persian Gulf, and all its People; Protector of the Shi'ite and all Islamic Followers of Imperial Lands."
Proposals to change this title to remove the religious connotations and/or the different Nationalities listed have so far been rejected in the Persian Parliament.