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Shah of Persia (French Trafalgar, British Waterloo)

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Coat of arms of Iran, Qajar Dynasty (1907-1925)

Coat of Arms of the reigning Qajar Dynasty.

The Shah of Persia is a Constitutional Monarch that is the ceremonial Head of State of Persia. The current rulers are of the Qajar Dynasty (Turkish for escapes), whom the first was Mohammad Khan Qajar in 1794. The current Shah is Shah Hassam Qajar.

List of Monarchs (1797-present)

# Portrait Name and Title Date of Birth Date of Death Length of Reign
1 Fath Ali Shah(hermitage2) Fat'h Ali Shah Qajar 5 September 1772 19 February 1833 17 June 1797 - 19 February 1833
2 360px-Mohammadshah Mohammad Shah Qajar 1 October 1808 7 December 1849 19 February 1833 - 7 December 1849
3 Nāser al-Dīn Schah Naser al-Din Shah Qajar/Shah Naser al-Din Qajar 17 March 1830 7 May 1895 7 December 1849 - 7 May 1895
4 467px-Mozaffar-ed-Din Shah Qajar - 1 Shah Mozaffer al-Din Qajar 8 May 1851 14 June 1907 7 May 1895 - 14 June 1907
5 Mohammad Ali Shah Shah Mohammad Ali Qajar 20 September 1869 19 August 1921 14 June 1907 - 19 August 1921
6 420px-AhmadShahQajar2 Shah Ahamad Qajar 18 June 1891 10 December 1939 19 August 1921 - 10 December 1939
7 N/A Shah Mirza Qajar 9 September 1912 30 June 1986 10 December 1939 - 30 June 1986
8 N/A Shah Hassam Qajar 19 July 1945 N/A 30 June 1986 - present

Title

Since the earliest days of the Persian Empire, the monarch held various titles, including that of Shahanshah (King of Kings, or in Western terms, Emperor), Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans) and Bozorg Arteshtārān (Head of the Warriors, or in Persian: بزرگ ارتشتاران). In the 1870's, as the nation became more and more industrialized and "Western", Naser al-Din Shah Qajar proposed a new title to reflect the increasing democracy of the Empire. In 1879 this was confirmed in a new "Imperial Title Act", where the shah would now be officially:

"Shah Naser Qajar, Ruler of the Ancient Lands of the Persian Nation , Protector of the Shi'ite and all Islamic Followers of Imperial Lands."

A more simple title simply became Shah Naser Qajar, and would be used in everyday language

After the addition of the lands of Afghanistan to the Empire in 1883, Shah Naser Qajar's title was again changed to reflect this in 1884, becoming:

"Shah Naser Qajar, Ruler of the Ancient Lands of the Persian and Afghan Nations and its People, Protector of the Shi'ite and all Islamic Followers of Imperial Lands."

The victory of Persia in the Second Global War, and the addition of Mesopotamia and lands around the Persian Gulf formerly part of the Ottoman Empire lead to the third, and so far, final change to the title with the accession of Shah Ahamad Qajar in 1921:

"Shah Ahamad Qajar, Ruler of the Ancient Lands of the Persian, Afghan, and Mesopotamian Nations, the Lands Surrounding the Persian Gulf, and all its People; Protector of the Shi'ite and all Islamic Followers of Imperial Lands."

Proposals to change this title to remove the religious connotations and/or the different Nationalities listed have so far been rejected in the Persian Parliament.

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