Alternate History

Second Sino-Japanese War (Yellowstone: 1936)

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Second Sino-Japanese War
Part of the Pacific War (from 1938)
Mukden 1931 japan shenyang
Japanese troops entering Shenyang during the Mukden Incident
Date Minor fighting since September 18, 1931
Full scale war: July 7, 1937 –
Location Mainland China, Burma
Flag of the Republic of China Republic of China

with Foreign Support

Merchant flag of Japan (1870) Empire of Japan

with Collaborator support

Commanders and leaders
Flag of the Republic of China Chiang Kai-shek

Flag of the Republic of China Chen Cheng
Flag of the Republic of China Yan Xishan
Flag of the Republic of China Li Zongren
Flag of the Republic of China Xue Yue
Flag of the Republic of China Bai Chongxi
Flag of the Republic of China Wei Lihuang
Flag of the Republic of China Du Yuming
Flag of the Republic of China Fu Zuoyi
Flag of the Republic of China Sun Lire
Flag of the People's Republic of China Mao Zedong
Flag of the People's Republic of China Zhu De
Flag of the People's Republic of China Peng Dehuai

Merchant flag of Japan (1870) Hirohito

Merchant flag of Japan (1870) Korechika Anami
Merchant flag of Japan (1870) Yasuhiko Asaka
Merchant flag of Japan (1870) Shunroku Hata
Merchant flag of Japan (1870) Seishirō Itagaki
Merchant flag of Japan (1870) Kotohito Kan'in
Merchant flag of Japan (1870) Iwane Matsui
Merchant flag of Japan (1870) Toshizō Nishio
Merchant flag of Japan (1870) Yasuji Okamura
Merchant flag of Japan (1870) Hajime Sugiyama
Merchant flag of Japan (1870) Hideki Tōjō
Merchant flag of Japan (1870) Yoshijirō Umezu
Merchant flag of Japan (1870) Seizo Ishikawa
Manchukuo Pu Yi
Flag of the Republic of China-Nanjing (Peace, Anti-Communism, National Construction) Wang Jingwei

5,600,000 Chinese
3600 Soviets (1937–40)
4,100,000 Japanese
900,000 Chinese collaborators
Casualties and losses
Nationalist: 1,320,000 KIA, 1,797,000 WIA, 120,000 MIA, and 17,000,000–22,000,000 civilians dead
Communist: 500,000 KIA and WIA.
Japanese estimates—including 480,000 dead in total
1937–1941: 185,647 dead, 520,000 wounded, and 430,000 sick; 1941–1945: 202,958 dead; another 54,000 dead after war's end.
Contemporary PRC studies: 1,055,000 dead
1,172,200 injured
Total: 2,227,200 Nationalist Chinese (ROC) estimates—1.77 million deaths, 1.9 million wounded

The Second Sino-Japanese War (July 7, 1937 – ), called so after the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894–95, was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from 1937 to 1941. China fought Japan with some foreign support, while Japan utilized collaborator states in China to aid them. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1938, the war merged into the greater conflict of the Pacific War. The Second Sino-Japanese War was the largest Asian war in the 20th century. It also believed to have made up more than 50% of the casualties in the Pacific War if the 1937–1941 period is taken into account.

The war was the result of a decades-long Japanese imperialist policy aiming to dominate China politically and militarily and to secure its vast raw material reserves and other economic resources, particularly food and labour. Before 1937, China and Japan fought in small, localized engagements, so-called "incidents". In 1931, the Japanese invasion of Manchuria by Japan's Kwantung Army followed the Mukden Incident. The last of these incidents was the Marco Polo Bridge Incident of 1937, marking the beginning of total war between the two countries.

Initially the Japanese scored major victories in Shanghai after heavy fighting, and by the end of 1937 captured the Chinese capital of Nanking. After failing to stop the Japanese in Wuhan, the Chinese central government was relocated to Chongqing in the Chinese interior. By 1939 the war had reached stalemate after Chinese victories in Changsha and Guangxi. The Japanese were also unable to defeat the Chinese communist forces in Shaanxi, which performed harassment and sabotage operations against the Japanese using guerrilla warfare tactics. On December 13, 1938, the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, and the following day (December 14, 1938) the Allied nations of the British Empire, the Netherlands, and the American Pacific-Asiatic Zone declared war on Japan. The Allies began to aid China via airlift matériel over the Himalayas after the Allied defeat in Burma that closed the Burma Road.

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