Alternate History

Second Mexican Independence War (Napoleon's America)

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The Second Mexican Independence War was fought between Mexican rebels and the French forces in Mexico.

Date 1862-1863
Location Mexico

Mexican Victory.

Mexico is recognized as an independent country.


Mexican Insurgents (Mexican Army and Navy)

French Colonial Army and Navy

150,000 (Initial)

250,000 (open war)

75,000 (Initial)

50,000 (open war)




May 20th, 1862. The day Napoleon I dies. The Emperor dies in the early morning, and the news reach Mexico by telegram in less than an hour. Within three hours from Napoleon´s death, a revolution has started in French Mexico.

Order of Opening Events

6:19 AM (Mexican time)- Napoleon dies.

6:20-6:30 AM- News of Napoleon´s death become known throughout the French upper and middle classes.

6:50 AM- There are rumors throughout France that Napoleon has died. A telegram is sent to Mexico informing high ranking army and navy officers of Napoleon´s death.

7:00 AM- In a meeting between the military elite in Mexico, 13 generals loyal to the French crown are murdered by rebel Generals.

7:15 AM- A decision is reached to start the Second War of Independence.

7:32 AM- Telegrams are sent to all Insurgent officers throughout Mexico.

8:03 AM- All telegrams have been answered and the attack hour is set to 9:00 AM.

9:00 AM- Insurgent forces start their attacks.

When the clock struck nine and over 150,000 military men started the fight for their independence, no one really knew what was happening, the French governing force had been captured and the royal guard surrendered to a contingent of 1000 troops in Mexico City. Officers loyal to France were quickly executed and their troops were given the opportunity to join rebel ranks or be incarcerated and tried for treason.

Many enlisted soldiers quickly turned over to the Mexican side, since they themselves were born and raised in Mexico by Mexican-born parents. The ones who refused to turn over were indeed rounded up and incarcerated.

The Insurgent Army quickly cut off the head of the snake, with 7 out of 10 loyalist Generals in Mexico dead or captured.

The Insurgent Navy surprised ships in their own fleet as they gunned down and boarded French ships-of-the-line, steam powered battleships were boarded and their officers executed while the crew was given the same choice of joining or incarceration. Frigates and smaller ships loyal to France were sunk and some ships even dealt with mutinous sailors who wanted to join the independence.

The Insurgent Navy quickly overran the unprepared and smaller French loyalist force. The military ports of Acapulco, Campeche, Tampico, Los Cabos, San Francisco, San Diego, Isla del Padre and many more places effectively fall under control of Insurgent forces.

Aftermath of Initial Attack


The Insurgent leaders declare the colony of French Mexico to be an independent Republic, which is named the Mexican Democratic Republic. They demand the surrender of the remaining French-loyalist troops and offer them pardons and acceptance as Mexican citizens. Private citizens loyal to France but born in Mexico are offered citizenship and threatened to be tried for treason and French nationals in Mexico are offered to live under Mexican rule peacefully. A governing body lead by president Benito Juarez is established and the Insurgent Army and Navy are renamed the Mexican Army and Navy respectively. Most of Mexico is free of French forces, except for the territories of Texas and New Santander (IRL Tamaulipas).


The War surprises many people all over the world, but no one is as shocked as the French. Their primary source of income, raw materials, weaponry, and pride has just turned on them and declared independence. There is not much they can do however, since the death of Emperor Napoleon is accompanied by the Uprising of Germany and the Austrian Revolution.

Troops of the French Empire are to busy fighting a war agains two of the most powerful European countries with limited supplies.

French Loyalists in Mexico

The troops loyal to the French Empire are surprised and angered at the Independence war, they declare the Insurgents to be bandits and troublemakers and refuse to surrender. Most troops retreat to Monterrey and San Antonio in North-Eastern Mexico. There they remain until the Mexican troops arrive.

Mid to Late 1862. Early 1863.


Mexican troops lead by Porfirio Diaz and Jaques Martinez are mobilized to the North, where the battles of Monterrey and San Antonio are fought in July 18 and August 2 respectively, both battles are won by the Mexicans and leave little casualties on both sides.

The remainder of the French Loyalists slowly falls back to the East, to the territory of Louisiana, which is still loyal to France. They move slowly, fighting many battles and skirmishes for every inch of land they let go. Once they´ve finally entered Louisiana the proud force of 50,000 brave defenders of the French Crown is reduced to a mere 16,187. The Mexican Army stops at the border line and declares Mexico to be free of French troops in Christmas Day.

The Birth of a Country

Mexico, a country less than a few months old already looks like a power in America, alongside the United States. The President quickly sends out troops to all the country to make sure taxes are still being paid and order is restored to provinces, territories, and intandencies that just suffered a war (however short they suffered it for). With his quick plan of action Mexico, one of the richest colonies, stays as Mexico, one of the richest countries.

President Juarez is also quick to send diplomats to the countries of Russia, England, and the US. These diplomats make agreements to open embassies and make trade agreements with this country. As soon as the Independence of Mexico was recognized by France, Mexico sends a diplomatic envoy there to offer a new era of relationships between Europe and America.

The beginning of life for Mexico is looking very promising.

Recognition of Mexico as a Country

As soon as Mexico declared itself as a country, many other countries recognized it since they were enemies of France. When finally they were recognized as an independent country by France, Mexicans celebrated all over the country. Trade relations with France resumed and goods started being imported to the USA, England, France, and Russia.

As Germany, Austria, and other Kingdoms under French rule achieve independence again, they recognize Mexico as a sovereign country and Mexico in turn sends diplomats to many European countries. Diplomats are also sent to the countries of Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Rio de la Plata, as well as the Asian countries of China, Japan, and India.

All these countries recognize Mexico as a country and many treaties, agreements and the like are signed.

New Spain

The Mexican Democratic Republic after achieving independence from France in 1865. Note that the Guatemalan Kingdom (IRL Chiapas and most of Central America) joined Mexico in late 1866. Note that the territory of Louisiana reaches all the way to the Mississippi river and the land east of that belongs to the United States.

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