The Second Mexican Empire was a constitutional monarchy established by France in Mexico in 1864.
France, using the excuse of failed debt payments, invaded Mexico in 1864 and established Maximilian I of House Hapsburg-Lorraine as the Emperor of Mexico. Maximilian, aided by Conservatives, clergy, a mixture of peasants and the wealthy, and French troops, put down any resistance offered by the previous government. Because Maximilian was of House Hapsburg, Austria-Hungary. was incredibly pleased and a budding alliance was soon formed between France and Austria-Hungary.
Maximilian was well-loved due to his social and economic reforms for the poor. His successor, Albert, began to industrialize the nation, just in time for World War I. Much of northern Mexico was devastated by the fighting between Mexican and Confederate/Californian soldiers. After years of fighting, Mexico was only given reparations as a reward for being on the victorious side. Albert died in 1923, replaced by Albert II. As the Great Depression hit Mexico severely, Albert attempted to gain more power for the monarchy over Parliament, and believed if he left the economy alone it would fix itself. Both these efforts failed, and resulted in an angry public. Finally, riots in Mexico City in 1937 resulted in citizens, led by the National Socialist Party, storming the Emperor's Palace and capturing and executing Albert II. Fighting between the Natsocs and northern Liberals began as the monarchy was dissolved, resulting in the Mexican Civil War.