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The Second Iberian War was a brief but violent conflict fought between the Kingdom of Portugal and communist Spain, lasting from June 1962 through March 1963. The war was an overwhelming victory for Spain, which claimed almost 100,000 Portuguese casualties against about 5,000 of its own thanks to advanced modern weapons from the French and assistance in a naval blockade by the French.
The war ended with the Cadiz Conference, which forced hefty reparations upon Portugal and set a military spending and armament cap for the small nation, as well as forcing a cessation of overseas holdings, including Goa in India and their African colonies to Spanish oversight. The war resulted in Portugal's landmark 1965 Joint Defense Treaty with the United States as it became a critical founding member of NATO.