The Second Haitian Revolution refers to the violent overthrow of the military regime of General Paul Magloire in the summer of 1958 by the populist and black nationalist forces of Francois Duvalier. The "glorious revolution" resulted in Haiti aligning itself with France in the geopolitical sphere for the first time since the late 1700's and removed one of America's most reliable allies in the western hemisphere in Magloire, who fled to Cuba in September after escaping custody and sure death.

The Haitian Revolution resulted in the eventual decline of Haiti, which had previously been one of the strongest growing economies in the Caribbean and was regarded as an example of a healthy US proxy state, and the containment of anti-US sentiment in the Caribbean and Latin America for the next 50 years would define US foreign policy, including the propping up of dictator Julian Hernandez in Dominica and attempted assassinations of Duvalier and his son and successor, Jean-Claude as well as two attempts by the CIA to fund coups in Haiti. Following the Bomb Scare, the removal of a French ally so close to the southern United States became a priority, until long-range ballistic missiles in Canada rendered the strategic value of Haiti to the French Empire largely moot. Regardless, Haiti was the site of nuclear brinkmanship during the 1960's with the establishment of nuclear warheads in silos on Haitian soil, which Duvalier goaded the French government into removing in the early 1970's for fear of another attempted invasion by US forces.

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