The background of the war goes back to the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1632 following the First Global War. The Prussians shared dominance over Germany mainly with Bavaria and Saxony. But Prussia was beginning to gain a more dominant military presence, which in the new German Confederation, meant power. Austria had been unable to gain access to the Confederation, and had become increasingly antagonistic to the organization itself. Prussia also was a member of the Byzantium Pact, which Bavaria was strongly against, and began gravitating toward the Austrian sphere of influence.
Another area of conflict was between Austria and Prussia's conflict over Silesia, although treaty gave Prussia the right to the land, Austria refused to give it to them. But Poland-Lithuania also laid claim to the land, but the commonwealth itself had begun to fall apart. The increasingly Eastern Orthodox Russian Empire was now a member of the Byzantium Pact, and Poland-Lithuania was allied to Austria, and pressure from Russia to partition Poland-Lithuania became increasingly rough. There was also conflict between Poland-Lithuania and Prussia, as Prussia also wanted Pomerania for its access to the North Sea. While countries like Sweden and Russia were willing to recognize these claims, Poland-Lithuania still resisted.
When King Louis XV ascended to the throne of France in 1715, he was only 5 years old, but as he became much more Catholic, he began to question France's role in the Byzantium Pact. He believed that France should have its own sphere of influence or that it should join the new Alliance of Vienna, an alliance of states centered around Austria and Spain. France officially left the Byzantium Pact in 1734, and joined the Alliance of Vienna. This angered the Byzantine Empire, as no country had ever left the alliance, they were unsure how to react. But the Byzantine Empire decided that they should work toward better relations with the United Kingdom, which already had colonies in North America, Africa, and India. The two countries worked together to establish an effective alliance to cooperate in case of war in North America and India against France.
Tensions also began to increase Denmark-Norway and Sweden, as the two vied for control over the Scandinavian peninsula and the North Sea, Denmark-Norway left the Byzantium Pact in 1738. And now the two began to were fighting politically over the ownership of parts of Norway. But neither side gained enough political support to stake a legitimate claim over the other.
Meanwhile, Persia had been rebuilding its empire ever since its loss to the Byzantine Empire in the Iberia War, and had had trouble building an effective military and economic system under the pressure of the Byzantine Empire on one border and China on the other. But now they had raised an army of 125,000 soldiers, and were prepared to fight a war with the Byzantine Empire, especially if it meant regaining the Iberia and Mesopotamia. And the Byzantine Empire failed at every try to get the Persians to size-down their military. But the Byzantines did have an answer to the threat.Throughout the late 17th and 18th centuries, the members of the Byzantium Pact had built massive colonial empires, and now had millions of people living within their borders. Seeing the military possibilities of this, the Byzantine Senate passed the Conscription Act of 1722, but it was vetoed by the emperor, who refused to accept a law allowing the conscription of all people within the empire, in both senatorial and imperial provinces. So the Act was changed to only allow conscription in Senatorial provinces, which at the time were mostly only in the Balkans and in the Anatolia, along with Judea. But the Emperor, Justinian V, died in 1724, and his son, Constantine the XII was a much more democratic emperor, who allowed the passing of the Senatorial Expansion Act of 1728, which expanded the amount of Senatorial provinces in the empire. He also allowed the passing of the Annexation Act of 1729, where the client Kingdom of Libya, established after the First Global War, was directly annexed as an imperial province. With these acts, by 1740, the Byzantine army had 450,000 men in it. But with the development of warfare and logistics, as well as the increasing bureaucracy of governmental systems across Europe, combined with new technologies and tactics, threatened to make this a very long conflict.
European Theatre: 1740-1752
The war in the east began when Prussia, after having been refused once again in its attempts to take Silesia from Austria, Frederick II decided to use force, and declared war on Austria. As the many allies of these two states soon followed, the war to conquer Silesia grew to involve two sides: Prussia, Sweden, and Russia on one, and Austria and Poland-Lithuania on another. Frederick lead an army of 45,000 Prussian troops, and as he began to rally support from the many German states, his army grew more in size as time went on. He first met the enemy at the fields of Hohenfriedberg, Silesia, where 24,000 Prussians under Frederick defeated 27,000 Austrians soldiers under Field Marshal Wilhelm Reinhard von Neipperg. He then moved southeast to the city of Wroclaw, where 30,000 Austrian troops engaged his army of 28,000, and were defeated by Frederick yet again. With the provincial capital of Silesia captured, all of Silesia soon fell under his grasp. Just 2 years into the conflict, Silesia had been completely conquered, but Frederick wouldn't stop there.
Frederick now marched an army 50,000 strong into Bohemia, his plan was to take even more land for Germany in the idea of conquering the heavily-German Sudetenland, but he found himself fighting both Austrians trying to stop his advance, and Bohemians who used his invasion as a pretext for a new revolution. As the revolutionaries did not want to be part of either Austria or Prussia, they openly fought against both sides. The Austrians and Prussians now found themselves fighting two enemies, and called a 1-year ceasefire agreement in order to quell the revolt, which was dangerous to both armies. The Second Bohemian Revolt died after the conquering of Prague by Frederick, but the ceasefire soon proved fatal for the Austrian cause.
The Prussians at this point now had conquered most of northern Bohemia in the idea of suppressing the revolt. But the Austrians still wouldn't give up the Sudetenland to Prussia, and Frederick still now had to fight for 2 years until they met the Austrians at the decisive Battle of Eger on the very edge of the Sudetenland, where 56,000 Prussians fought 90,000 Austrians, but the Prussians held the higher ground, where they were able to fire down upon the Austrians, who's infantry fell back, and were unsuccessful in multiple cavalry charges. The Prussians had by this point now driven the Austrians out of the Sudetenland, and now signed the temporary Peace of Prague in 1747, which was made to last until a final treaty to end the war on an international level sould be reached.
Prussia now turned its focus east to Poland-Lithuania which had been fighting only a small war with Prussia over control of of Pomerania and West Prussia, so Frederick planned to conquer Pomerania and relieve West Prussia. He had now raised an army of 75,000 Prussians and Germans and march east to take Pomerania, which was defended by only 40,000 Polish-Lithuanian troops. Frederick easily marched through Pomerania until he reached the city of Danzig in April 1748, defended by 25,000 troops, it posed the first real threat to Frederick's invasion. But after a 1-month siege, the city fell, and Pomerania was conquered, but Poland-Lithuania continued to send troops to invade West Prussia. So with Russia on his side, a two-pronged invasion was launched.
Poland-Lithuania had been crumbling for centuries now, and couldn't fight a war on two fronts, let alone one to either Prussia or Russia. But Poland-Lithuania's troops held out for 2 years, until in 1750, Warsaw was captured by a Prussian siege in May, and Poland-Lithuania's government surrendered officially on June 17, 1750, ending the war in the east. Russia and Prussia made plans to partition Poland-Lithuania, but how would have to wait for a peace treaty.
With France's declaration of war on the Byzantium Pact in 1740, the Byzantine Empire gathered its allies, Great Britain, the Netherlands, and their allied Italian states, and marched through the German Confederation to France. Spain marched its own army into France meeting up the two armies at Toulouse, and then marching to counter the Byzantine invasion in the east. The Franco-Spanish army totaled at 625,000 soldiers, against the enemies 500,000 soldiers. The allied army first moved to the city of Metz, which fell in March 1743. And now with their army ready for a spring campaign, the allies pushed for a campaign against the French in the north, planning to take Paris, and then to march south and take the Spanish out of the war with a quick campaign, believing the Spanish incapable of fighting a war on their own soil after witnessing the First Global War.
The allied army now advanced on Reims, a city just 80 miles (130 km) from Paris. The French and Spanish defended the city well, but even their forces were forced to retreat from Reims, as the allies advanced on Paris. The city of Paris was defended by 140,000 Franco-Spanish troops, and the civilians of the city also helped in building up the city's defenses. The allies attacked Paris on May 7, 1744, with an army of 300,000 soldiers. The city was bombarded day and night by Byzantine artillery, which pounded out the majority of the city's defenses, and forced the majority of Franco-Spanish forces deep into the city. Against all the enemy's defenses, the allies broke through the eastern defenses, and eventually on all sides of the city. Allied troops broke through into Paris on December 28, 1744, and Byzantine field marshal Gadori Tyranos stated in a now famous quote, "Me and my subordinates shall be celebrating Christmas in the Versaille this year." The Byzantines pushed the enemy army out of Paris within days, and Tyranos' quote came true when he and his men drank a glass of Christmas wine in the Hall of Mirrors (Greek Orthodox Christmas being on January 7). The Spanish and French army now was on the retreat to Orlean, where they prepared to defend the rest of France from the Byzantine invasion force.
The Byzantines and their allies moved south, not to Orleans, but rather they split into 2 forces, one moving on the lightly defended towns of Blois and Gien, to Orleans east and west. The two pincers linked up at the Salbris, where they then surrounded the city of Orleans, and began closing in around it. The Franco-Spanish army, finding themselves surrounded, awaited an assault on the city, but when it came, they attempted a breakout maneuver, however, they ended up charging deeply into the Byzantines densest formation. And as part of the attempted breakout, they charged right into the Byzantines newest unit, the 1st Rifleman's Regiment, 2,000 Byzantine soldiers, each armed with the new Byzantine Antioch-model rifle, a new weapon being studied by the Byzantine War Ministry. The riflemen shot straight into the enemy's formation, and took out enough infantrymen to force the enemy to retreat. Eventually, only 20,000 Spanish and 24,000 French soldiers were able to breakout, and they marched south for 6 months all the way back to Spain. When they finally arrived, they were put to work defending the Spanish border at the Pyrenees, which seemed the obvious choice for an invasion.
The allied invasion eventually did come from across Pyrenees, but instead of the entire force, it was only a small force of 30,000 soldiers, while the remainder of the forces came by sea from the north. Spain had thought of this and put a naval blockade around the northern sea border, but the Byzantine navy had ripped apart the blockade when a large part of it traveled around Gibraltar. And now 300,000 troops made the trip by sea around from France, and over to the ports of La Coruna, San Sebastian, and Santander. The ports each fell in just hours, and the force from San Sebastian moved east to flank the Spanish land defenses. By November 17, 1747, the Byzantine forces had moved south and taken most of Spain, but now the final battle was about to be fought. The Spanish had put 80,000 troops in the town of Valladolid, which the Byzantines assaulted with 120,000 troops, and forced the Spanish to flee after 3 days of fighting and taking 16,000 casualties. But when the Byzantines surrounded Madrid, the Spanish continuously pushed against them, but against all hopes, surrendered the city on March 28, 1748.
In March 1745, the army of Denmark-Norway, numbering at 87,000 marched along the coast to the Swedish port of Gothenburg, however, found themselves unable to take the city, and instead decided to move east to Boras, a small town holding a Swedish fort. But by this point Swedish general Charles Emil Lewenhaupt had march an army of 60,000 Swedish soldiers to defend the town, where they engaged the enemy troops, and forced a retreat of the Danish forces. The Danes were then reinforced, and marched south to the town of Malmö, where the Swedes were forced into a retreat, but quickely went to defend the town of Karlskrona, a Swedish naval base, which was defended already by 12,000 Swedes, and was attacked by the Danes on November 17, 1745. But the assault was repelled, and the Swedes began their counterattack against the Danes.
The Danish army had been pushed out of Sweden within just 2 months, and on February 4, 1746, the Swedes launched a counter-invasion of Norway. The town of Frederickstad, near the border, was taken without a fight, and town of Kongsvinger was taken in just 1-and-a-half hours of fighting. The advancing Swedes assaulted Oslo, where 24,000 Danes had made a garrison in the city, and were prepared to fight for it, but after just 2 weeks, the defenses of the city had been broken and the city was taken on May 12, 1746. The Swedes now pushed south, and by April 1747, had pushed the Danes all the way across the Nordic Sea, and forced the Danes final surrender in the warm ending the fight in the north.
American Theatre: 1745-1751
With the increased colonization of the Americas, tensions in the region grew between the British and France, and now the British had support from the Byzantines to take the French colony of Canada from the French. The British had 12,000 troops stationed in their colonies at the time, but they quickly began transporting their troops across the Atlantic to North America after the war in America began in 1745 with the Battle of Fort Oswego, where 3,000 French soldiers took Fort Oswego, on the border of Canada and New York. With the British fort, taken, the French began to move to take New York, in their plan to take New England and the northern colonies from the British.
The British and Byzantines then spent the next three months transporting 20,000 troops across the Atlantic, which formed into two armies, one under British commander Jeffrey Amherst, a British colonel, who was then promoted to Lieutenant General, and one under Byzantine general, Alexander Ypsilantis, a Byzantine prince and the Duke of Wallachia. They moved their forces north against the French invasion commanded by French general Louis-Joseph de Montcalm, who's army of 24,000 now had advanced deep into New York, and now seemed intent on not taking New York, but instead New Haven, Connecticut. He believed it was New Haven where a majority of the allied troops were coming from, and decided it to be his target. The city was defended by 12,000 British and Byzantine regulars, and the French assault on the city was repelled after just 3 hours of fighting, with the French taking 900 casualties to the allies 140. Now the allies forces under general Ypsilantis drove straight through the French center with an infantry charge, and forced the French to retreat back into Canada.
Now the British lead the charge against the French as 14,000 British regulars, trailed by 4,000 militiamen, march to the St. Laurence River, where they seized multiple French forts in just weeks, and now moved to take Quebec and Montreal. Although the troops lacked the proper weaponry to take the big cities yet, the French city Trois Rivieres was attacked in May 1748, and 4,000 soldiers forced the French out of the city in just 2 days, and now the French soldiers, forced into the field, were taken apart by the British soldiers, forcing all the French to either surrender or retreat to Quebec City. There the British and Byzantines had begun sending ships down the river to cut of the city by water, and their naval guns fired down upon the French fortifications, where 20,000 French troops had been placed.Now the Byzantines assaulted the city of Montreal in March 1749, and with cannons and cavalry they surrounded the city and began marching on its defenses. The Byzantines now forced there way into the city, where the fought for 4 days against the French, who finally surrendered Montreal on May 7, 1749. Meanwhile, the British under General Amherst charged the French troops built up around the walls of Quebec City. The French and British fought on the Plains of Abraham, where General Amherst lead the infantry from behind, and finally the French after 5 hours began folding, and meanwhile British soldiers began a risky amphibious assault where they marched up a ridge on the well defended French left, but their mission allowed the flanking of the French, who then retreated back into the city. The British used their superior cannon-fire to destroy the French defenses, and the French finally surrendered on April 11, 1749. The French made a formal issue of surrender for Canada on April 14, 1749, and the two sides waited for an end to hostilities in Europe to decide how this part of the war would end.
Ohio Valley Campaign
The Byzantines moved a small army of 2,500 soldiers under General Alexander Postaris invaded Louisiana. He lead his army out of Virginia in September 1748, and now he moved his army to take the French settlements along the Mississippi River, mainly St. Geneieve and New Orleans. In the fight against the Byzantines, 2,800 French soldiers were stationed in Louisiana at the time, and they were now match for the invading Byzantines. The Byzantines pushed their way deep into the Ohio Valley. The two sides engaged first along the Mississippi River to the north of St. Geneieve, where 240 Byzantine troops fought 200 French troops, killing 14 of them and taking the rest captive, sending them back to the British colonies to be held prisoner. The Byzantines attacked St. Genevieve in May 1751, quickly surrounding the settlement, where they then fired upon its small defenses with the two cannons they had brought with them. The French surrendered the settlement just 3 days after the attack began, where the settlements 450 defenders were then also sent back to the British colonies to be held prisoner.
The Byzantines in the meantime then also sent 2,400 troops south to take New Orleans, which was defended by 800 French troops. The Byzantines marched south along the Mississippi after taking St. Genevieve, the Byzantine dispatch marched for 2 and a half weeks downriver, part by land, part by boat. Where they had to deal with small groups of French soldiers and French-allied Native Americans, but only lost 42 soldiers en route. The Byzantines arrived outside of New Orleans on June 27, 1751, where they were met by 1,800 Aztec soldiers sent to assist in the taking of New Orleans and turned their 2 cannons on the city. Meanwhile 20 Byzantine ships-of-the-line surrounded the city and bombarded it by sea. The city was also defended by 2,000 Incans soldiers sent to assist the French in fighting the Byzantines and Aztecs. But regardless of this, the French settlement fell on July 14, and the fighting in North America ceased.
Asian Theatre: 1750-1758
Southeast Asia Campaign
Along with the rest of the Alliance of Vienna, China declared war on its Asian counterpart, the Tokugawa Shogunate, along with its ally, Annam. Japan sent out an army of 80,000 soldiers to take down the Chinese, planning a seaborne attack on Taiwan and they planned on launching it from the Annamese coast. The Japanese assaulted the port of Da Nang in August 1750, where 12,000 Annamese soldiers were stationed in preparation for the assault on Taiwan, along with 12 large assault ships. The assault ships were gunned down by Japanese ships-of-the-line, and 20,000 Japanese soldiers landed in the city's ports, where they then quickly overran the city, and marched north to the city of Phu Xuan, meeting up with another Japanese army of 45,000 coming from Ha Long Bay, who already march for 2 weeks.
They surrounded the city and assaulted it with 50 cannons, and the city was taken on October 26, 1750. The south of Annam was quickly conquered by another Japanese army of 17,000 soldiers, but the Chinese then intervened and assaulted the Japanese positioned in Annam in July 1742. The Chinese had a force of 70,000 soldiers who funneled into Annam, but the Japanese used the natural position of Annam to bottleneck the oncoming Chinese, who were quickly expunged from Annam and retreated back into China bu March of 1753.
The Japanese assaulted the mainland of China in March 1754, and attacked both by land Annam and by sea from Taiwan and Japan. The Japanese assaulted China with 180,000 soldiers, and the Japanese began their assault with an attack on Haikou. The Japanese cut Hainan off by land and sea by June 1754, and the Chinese surrendered the city to the siege by early July, and the Japanese continued to march toward the mainland. Hong Kong was taken after a quick siege in late July, and Guangzhou was taken later that month. Fuzhou had been under siege since the invasion began, but had never been able to fold to the Japanese forces, the city finally fell, however, after the Japanese took many of the land forts that had surrounded the city, they were able to attack from the highlands, and finally took the city.
The Japanese now saw very little resistance as they marched up the Chinese coast, and the Chinese city Shanghai was taken in 1757. The Chinese were now discouraged an their army had been destroyed, now the Japanese assaulted the Chinese capital, Beijing, on May 5, 1758, where they then surrounded the city, and used over 500 cannons in a siege of it. The city was almost completely destroyed by the siege, as 250,000 of the city's 900,000 residents were killed in the siege. The Chinese government finally surrendered the city, and the war on November 12, 1758, and the Japanese began planning out their part of the treaty that would end this war, and also occupying Annam.
The British and Byzantines began to move onto French held territories in India in 1754, the Byzantine and British East India Companies both financed 12,000 Byzantine and British troops to land in India, and their forces landed at the French port of Gahe in August 1754. They then marched south to capture the French-occupied Calcut, defended by 2,400 French East Indian Troops, where the Byzantines 120 cannons were able to crush the French defenses and the infantry moved in to take the city after a two-day battle on September 17, 1754. The next allied target was the French port Cochin, where a two-hour battle ensued, but the French ultimately were forced to retreat and marched east to the French center of settlement at the Gulf of Mannar.
Meanwhile, another Byzantine army of 4,500 soldiers marched south from the Byzantine city of Vizagapatam to the French fort at Yanam. There 4,000 French troops fought fiercely, taking 800 casualties to the Byzantine 320, but the French were themselves ultimately forced into a retreat back to Mannar. The Byzantines and British, meanwhile, sent a fleet of 45 ships to the gulf to cut off the French colonies by sea. Meanwhile, the army coming from the west march against the French, and eventually, they came upon the city of Nagapatam, but they found it had already been taken by Byzantine marines after 12 Byzantine ships bombarded the harbor for 13 hours. The French were eventually forced into a small pocket of resistance around Pondicherry, a city colonized by France in 1674, and had become the regional capital of French India.
The Byzantines and British now clamped down on Pondicherry, and now they bombarded the city by sea, and eventually on June 21, 1748, as the situation got dire, the French marched against the Byzantines in a last infantry assault. The French charged into the Byzantines with 4500 troops, and only 900 troops were captured, the rest were either killed or wounded. The Byzantines took the city soon afterward, and now the Byzantines and British finally got a formal surrender of French India from French general and governor Charles Godeheu at 8 PM that day, although all forces had ceased fighting by 4 PM. Asia was now clear of violence, and the Byzantines and British moved in to occupy former French India.
Middle Eastern Campaign-1755-1759
In 1755, the Persian Army at 125,000 marched from eastern Persia into the Byzantine province of Mesopotamia, where 80,000 Byzantine troops had been preparing for the invasion for two years. The Persians launched a pincer movement, attacking the cities of Basra, where the Byzantines laid in wait, and eventually the Persians attacked. The Persians attacked by land and sea against Basra, and caught the Byzantines by surprise when the fired sea cannons on Basra. The Byzantines retreated by water up the Euphrates to Najaf, which was attacked by the Persian two weeks later in October 1755. Najaf, however, held out against the Persians for three days until the siege was relieved by Byzantine river boats.
Now the Persians, marching against Kirkuk were marching against a trap, as 4,500 Byzantine riflemen laid in wait for their advance. When the Persians marched out of the local mountains, they were confronted by the riflemen, and the 50,000 Persians in march to Kirkuk were defeated with 2350 men lost to the Byzantine's 100. The Persians were thrown into retreat, and eventually the Byzantines marched into the mountains, where they eventually forced the Persians back into their own territory. The Persians fell back in general in November 1757, and now the Byzantines gathered a single army of 100,000 soldiers to fight the Persians in their own land.
The Byzantines began their campaign by marching from southern Mesopotamia into Persia in January of 1758, and took the southern fortress at Il am almost without a fight. And now the city of Arak seemed as if it was the only possible stopping point for the Byzantine invasion. The Byzantines fought for 2 days against 75,000 Persian soldiers, but the Persians were unable to stop a Byzantine flanking maneuver and the ensuing collapse of their right flank. The Persians now were in deep trouble, and the Byzantines marched toward the major Persian city of Tehran, where they quickly took the city's outer defences, but fought hard against 25,000 Persians for the inner part of the city. Eventually, after another week, the city fell, and the Persians again retreated back deep into Persia.
The Byzantines now marched almost unmatched to the Persian capital of Mashhad, where the 12,000-member Persian Imperial Guard was waiting outside the city. But instead of fighting against them, the Imperial Guard fought with the Byzantines, as the Persian Emperor had become very unpopular because of the war. The Byzantines entered the city against 50,000 Persian soldiers, most conscripted and unprofessional. Against the highly trained Byzantine Army, a majority of the city was taken by the Byzantines, but the Imperial Guard had taken the city's main political sectors, in a major coup d'etat where the Emperor was taken captive, and his family arrested. The Persians had ultimately lost the war, and now had to pay for it, although the Byzantines now had to negotiate with the new Imperial State of Persia, run by the Imperial Guard.
Treaty of Paris
The Treaty of Paris was signed at the Versailles Palace, on February 10, 1759 between representatives of the warring states, officially ending the Second Global War, and treaty went into effect as of the beginning of 1760. The terms were as following:
- Silesia shall be handed from the Duchy of Austria to the Kingdom of Prussia
- The Polish-Lithuania Commonwealth will be partitioned according to the following zones: Pomerania will go to Prussia, Lithuania will be annexed by Russia, and the Kingdom of Poland shall be established as an independent nation
- Norway shall be handed from the Kingdom of Denmark to the Swedish Empire
- Control of Canada shall be transferred from France to Britain and Louisiana shall be transferred to the Byzantine Empire
- Annam shall be annexed by the Tokugawa Shogunate
- Control of French India shall be split accordingly to the British East India Company and the Byzantine East India Company
- Persian Arabia shall be transferred to the Byzantine Empire as the territory of East Arabia, and the Persian Empire shall be partitioned to the wishes of the Byzantine representatives
The Persian Empire was split into the new Republic of Kurdistan and the Kingdom of Iran were both established out of the partitioned Imperial State of Persia. Both states were really clients of the Byzantine Empire, and the new Byzantine-allied Persia became a member of the Byzantium Pact in 1763. The Austrians had now lost total eastern European prominence to Prussia, which now remained as the only great power left in the German Confederation, as Bavaria and Saxony had been suffered heavy losses fighting the Austrians. Spain had also lost total prominence in Europe to the Byzantine Empire, and now had to spend the next century rebuilding it.
In 1760, a group of 1,200 French soldiers stormed the Versailles Palace and screamed out "Malade de roi, gloire du duc!", meaning "Down with the king, glory to the duke," referring to the Duke Louis Phillippe, the Duke of Orleans. The King was deposed and the Duke was declared king Louis XVI of France, and the House of Bourbon was replaced by the House of Orleans as the ruling family of the Kingdom of France. The new king lead France to rejoin the Byzantium Pact and helped fix relations with Britain and the Byzantines who quickly recognized the new regime.
Spain, Austria, and for a period, France, fell out as great powers in Europe, and the Byzantines, British, and Russians began building up their empires that would eventually lead to new wars, new rivalries, and new nations.