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Second Europe 1430, 1430-1459 (Map Game)

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Back to Second Europe 1430

1430

Europe 1100 Map

  • Mantua invades Florence, and overwhelms it. The Pope recognizes the leader of Mantua as the Doge of Tuscany.
  • Athens attacks Byzantine Greece and manages to conquer it, forming the Athenian Empire.
  • The current leader of the Lordship of the Isles dies childless. The Lordship is absorbed by Orkney.

1431

  • Aragon expands into Navarre, completely overrunning it. Navarre is absorbed into Aragon.
  • Castile invades Portugal, however they are driven out and begin retreating into their own land.
  • Henry IV of England dies. Unfortunately, his son died of syphilis around the same time. The English Parliament elects an English nobleman, Richard of Cornwall, as the new king. He becomes Richard III of England. His wife is already pregnant.

1432

Europe 1430 2

  • A revolution in Aragonese Navarre manages to liberate around half of the country. This half becomes a protectorate of England., although with some autonomy.
  • Portugal advances south towards Gibraltar, and north along the coast of Castile. Castile is able to hold the center and begins to organize a defence farther into Castile
  • Aragon officially recognizes Navarre as an independent country and forms a peace treaty with them. They also begin to hire pirates to raid the Mamluk Sultanate, and begin preparing for war.

There is a giant earthquake in England, measuring a 7.6 on the Richter scale. Richard of Cornwall is killed and England is thrown into chaos. In the meantime, his wife gives birth to three sons, but dies in the process. Three highly influential lords manage to gain custody of one child each, and declare themselves the regent of that child. This breaks England into the Kingdoms of Normandy, Wales (Including Ireland) and England. Gascony merges into Navarre.

1433

  • Poland-Lithuania launches an attack on Moldavia as a prelude to an invasion of Hungary.
  • Tuscany annexes Siena.
  • Wales begins to launch attacks into England, due to the chaos of the Earthquake. They capture one of the heirs to Richard of Cornwall, and publicly hang him. This lowers the morale of England, and Wales pushes in for hundreds of miles.

Remember, Wales is also led by a regent claiming to represent one of the infant heirs of Richard of Cornwall.

  • Aragon formally invades the Mamluks, and catching them by surprise, destroy half of their navy. They land in the Nile River Delta, and begin pushing in.

1434

  • Pan-Celtic revolts occur all across the British Isles. They are able to seize the government of Orkney and declare the two kingdoms united. In Wales, the nobleman in charge is forced to start a more pro-Celtic approach.
  • Portugal is able to capture Gibraltar this year, and their forces reach the northern coasts of Castile. Castile asks for a peace treaty, and Portugal accepts. Castile will pay tribute to Castile for 25 years.
  • Crete declares independence and immediately establishes its own government. They create a large navy and train up a fairly- large army compared to how small they are. Crete immediately asks Aragon for an alliance.

1435

Europe 1430 3

  • Athens invades and conquers Crete. Venice responds by declaring war on Athens, as it still considered Crete Venetian territory. Athens seizes all Venetian territory in Greece. Albania and Ragusa use this as an excuse to seize more Venetian territory. The war will continue for several years.
  • Moldavia manages to recover from Poland-Lithuania's attack, and restores prewar borders. Hungary, Moldavia and Wallachia form an alliance against future Poland-Lithuania, and secretly against the Ottoman Empire.
  • Savoy and Burgundy enter a dynastic union.

1436

  • The war in the Balkans finally gets started, with several fleets clashing. Very little changes.
  • The Pope demands that Tuscany cease expansion. Tuscany, afraid of becoming a pariah state, backs down. Unknown to the Pope, they where only days away from invading Ferrara.
  • The English and the Welsh make peace. Revolutions in Ireland force the Welsh back to the pale. Ireland is divided between an ever changing array of small nations.
  • Everyone, try to slow down a bit. The breakup of England and the War in the Balkans are two major events happening at the same time. They should continue to be until 1440.
  • The Ottoman Empire captures Constantinople, and renames it Istanbul.
  • The city was renamed by Turkish popular slang in 1923. Not by Mehmet II in 1453.
  • Afraid of an Ottoman attack, Athens, Hungary, Trebizond, Albania, Ragusa, the Nights of St. John and Cyprus join in alliance.

1437

  • Cornwall secedes from England as the Kingdom of Kernow.
  • Venice is finally forced to accept peace with the "Balkan Alliance" after the other countries in the alliance threaten to join the war. Venice forms an alliance with Tuscany.
  • A revolution arises in Bosnia. The territory is still under Ottoman control, but the revolution is being supported by Albania and Ragusa.

1438

  • Athens annexes the remains of the Byzantine Empire.
  • Ireland revolts against Wales. Wales holds the pale. Ireland elects a new high king.
  • Portugal builds up its navy. They work on creating more efficient ships that can effectively do hit-and-run attacks. They also work on creating an effective road system in their newly expanded empire
  • Muscovy annexes Postov, with minimal rebellion. They plan on conquering Tver next Year. Muscovy signs an alliance with Novgorod.

SE1430 4

1439

  • Sick of pan-Celtism and disliking the large role that the Highlanders are playing in the kingdom, Ayrshire, Strathclyde, and most of the Isles declare independence as the Lordship of the Isles. Their first move is to secure an alliance with England against Scotland and to open relations with Denmark.
  • Pskov enters an alliance with the Teutonic Knights. They wage a brief war which expands the Principality considerably, at the expense of Novgorod. Tver and Pskov sign an alliance.
  • Muscovy and Novgorod declare war on Tver, Pskov and the Teutonic Knights. The enemies that oppose Muscovy and Novgorod are small, so Tver easily falls to Muscovy. Pskov is slowly falling, but heavy resistance has prevented Novgorod and Muscovy to make much headway. Muscovy and Novgorod both sign the Act of Many, declaring that each male person inside Muscovy or Novgorod must serve in the army for at least three years.
  • The Golden Horde allows Georgia to have more northern territory in return for an alliance.

1440

1440

  • The Teutonic Knights request aid from the Emperor in their war against the Rus, and the Holy Roman Emperor agrees, hoping to someday include the northern Baltic in the Holy Roman Empire. (Keep in mind Brandenburg, Bohemia, Habsburgs, and Luxemburg are part of the empire as well)
  • Several French dukes, tired of French defeats against the English and Burgundy declare for the Duke of Provence, creating the Kingdom of Occitania.

1441

Europe 1430 6

  • The war in the North continues. Pskov is slowly being pushed back, although the Rus are paying dearly for ever inch of Pskovian territory they manage to capture. Holy Roman Empire troops have finally arrived on the Scene, and have began reinforcing Pskovian positions. The Poland-Lithuanian Commonwealth takes advantage of the situation and declares war on their old enemy, the Teutonic Knights (now Hanseatic League)
  • Bosnian revolutionaries control coastal areas of Bosnia. The Balkan Alliance begins supporting similar revolutions in Bulgaria.
  • With the help of Poland-Lithuanian troops, Muscovy advances farther into southern Pskov, nearing the far border. Major losses in the north, however, cause the advance to stop or else the flank of the Muscovite troops will be exposed. Minor advances into Hanseatic territory also occur, but no major battles have played out yet.
  • Portugal begins to campaign against the Marinids, with major advances.

1442

2E1442

  • With HRE reinforcements, Pskov is able to hold off any Russian advancement, but is also unable to advance themselves. Meanwhile the Teutonic Knights are able to make some gains in Poland-Lithuania
  • The Bishop of Avignon submits to Occitanian authority in exchange for a permanent arrangement in which the Bishop of Avignon shall in perpetuity hold the position of Chancellor in the Occitanian royal court.
  • With England and Wales at peace, both begin consolidating their territory for a continuation of hostilities once the heirs to the English throne come of age. England retakes the fledgling Kernow due to its weak military and low population, while Wales begins solidifying its hold over Ireland.
  • Normandy begins negotiations with Burgundy and Occitania for a resumption of hostilities against France.

1443

  • Muscovy and Novgorod desperately bring in more reserve units, and are able to make minor advances. Poland-Lithuania conducts a campaign in southern Pskov which gains territory and locks Pskov up in a corner. This, however, causes the Knights gat more minor gains in Poland-Lithuania before they are stopped. Ryazan, under intense Muscovy pressure, joins the fight on Muscovy's side. Their small amount of troops are able to stabilize the fronts. popular support for the war in all participating countries begins to wane as casualties pile up on both sides.
  • With various rebellions and insurrections within the European territory of the Ottoman Empire, the Sultan, Murad II leads his armies towards Bosnia. His son and successor, Mehmed II leads a second army south towards the territory of Athens. Twin tragedies then occur. At a skirmish outside of Sarajevo, Murad is injured. At first not thought to be serious, he steadily worsens before dying. Briefly, this means that his son, Mehmed is Sultan, but mere weeks after his fathers death, plague ravages his armies camp. Poisoned water supply's are thought to have been at the root. The result was the same however, Mehmed dead before he had a chance to implement his rule. The Ottoman court is divided by the sudden death of the Sultan and his heir, and rival Sultans jockey for position. Taking advantage, the Greeks of Constantinople revolt, whilst Athens, strikes out, retaking Thessaly and edging into Thrace.
  • Portugal sends an army into Granada in hopes to be the dominate nation of the Iberian Peninsula.
  • Aragon expands more into the Mamluk Sultanate, occupying the entire Nile Delta and robbing the Mamluks of their most important food source. They begin to negotiate a peace treaty.
  • Queen Margaret of Denmark decides to through her considerable weight behind the forces of the HRE. The KU sweeps through Karelia and over the Svir, capturing Volkhov and Onega. The Union's army crashes to an abrupt halt in the bogs south of Volkhov and are unable to penetrate further. They set up a defensive position outside of the city. Russian forces are badly bloodied by the unexpected offensive and are unable to remove the encroaching Scandinavians, but they are able to fortify Novgorod and set up a strong defensive position in the bogs, positioned strategically to prevent offensives from all directions.
  • The Frisian warlord Oos Wes IIava attacks and conquers Gelre and Ulrecht. He begins securing his new realm from invasion and imports yew from Norway, rightly thinking that he can turn a good profit from exporting the tree for its valuable wood.

1444

2E1444

  • Normandy, Burgundy, and Occitania begin their offensive against France, making some gains.
  • The Ottoman instability allows Serbia and Bosnia to reassert their independence. Athens also makes more gains in Thrace and takes Epirus, though the Ottomans are rallying, it seems with the Bosniaks, Serbs, Greeks, and Bulgarians, their days in Europe are fast nearing an end. A Turkish noble in the east begins rallying support for uniting the Turkish emirates instead.
  • Wales continues consolidating its hold on Ireland.
  • With a stalemate amongst the combatants in Russia, Novgorod, Muscovy, the Kalmar Union, the Teutonic Order, the HRE and Pskov meet to discuss peace. Meanwhile, the Knights, Brandenburg, and Bohemia make gains on Poland-Lithuania.

1445

  • The Kalmar Union sends a peace offer to the Russians. Eric's terms of peace that he sends to the Russians are as follows: all of Karelia to the KU, as well as lands west to Onega and south to the approximate latitude of Petrozavodsk.
  • Pskov makes considerable gains against Poland-Lithuania. This puts them in a better position to negotiate.
  • Albania manages to usurp some Ottoman territory in the Balkans.
  • A rebellion starts in Bulgaria, aimed to free it from Ottoman control. Meanwhile several Turkish Emirates declare their allegiance to the Ottomans.
  • In Constantinople, Constantine XI Dragasēs Palaiologos is crowned as Basileus of the Byzantine Empire. As Despot of Morea, Constantine united the two territories of Athens and Constantinople and with the Bulgar's disrupting the Ottoman lines of communication and effective control of the Balkan territory Constantine is able to seize a narrow coastal band giving a land connection between the two parts of the Empire. Whilst not a real danger yet to the surrounding lands, the Byzantine Empire now has more land under its control than in the last 40 years

1446

  • The Hafsids, Zayyanids and Maranids join in an alliance with Granada. They manage to push Portugal back somewhat, although they have trouble properly uniting.
  • Portugal regroups and moves forward deeper into Granada.
  • Wales finishes conquering Ireland, although their hold is weak.
  • Freisland moves against Berg and Munster next, defeating the Hanoverian forces at Cleves. They expand the navy and construct several fortifications along the Rhine to hold up enemy ships in case of war.
  • Portugal campaigns again in Africa and secures a little more land, but the combined opposing forces cause the gains to be minor and costly
  • Normandy amps up its military.
  • Serbia launches a campaign to gain more land in the Ottoman-controlled Balkans.

1447

Second Europe Map Game 1

  • Further rebellions occur in Ireland. The locals are merely part of a Celtic movement. They do not really wish to put aside their own cultures, which are distinctly different from the Welsh. The Welsh have a difficult time holding them.
  • Navarre joins the War against France.
  • Normandy's military is increased. This means defense, army, and navy. The navy sailors are especially trained on the ways of sailing. In time, Normandy will be home to some of the most skilled sailors.
  • Disaster strikes the Russian nations. Ryazan, until now having only sent in a few forces, declares themselves the Republic of Russia. They invade Muscovy and Poland-Lithuania and make massive land gains and ask for alliances with the HRE, the KU, Pskov, and the Teutonic Knights. One-third of Muscovy and a large amount of Poland-Lithuania is captured. Muscovite troops return home to fight the Ryazan menace.
  • The alliance against has fallen Portugal and Granada has fallen. Portugal sends more troops to Africa.

1447

  • Muscovy and the coalition of Kalmar Union, Teutons, Pskov, and the HRE agree to a white peace leaving Muscovy to deal with Ryazan and leaving Poland-Lithuania and Novgorod on their own against the overwhelming coalition. With no other options Novgorod agrees to meet the coalition's demands. Poland-Lithuania however remains defiant. The Kalmar union however sees no gain in continuing the war against Poland-Lithuania and negotiates a separate peace.
  • Having come of age, the heir of Richard of Cornwall in Wales marries an Irish noblewoman to secure the support of the Irish, and promising more rights for the Irish once he claims the crown of England.
  • Normandy continues to upgrade the military.
  • Novgorod signs a peace treaty with the coalition, and withdraws from Pskov. They offer to help pay for the damages to Pskov.
  • Ryazan continues to advance in Poland-Lithuania, who has not surrendered yet. The Prince continues the long process of uniting the people, and more people are sent to fight. they fall back in Muscovy, now facing the bulk of the Muscovite army.
  • Portugal continues to campaign against the Marinids, but the tribes in Africa are uniting more, so it is even more costly than before. People in Portugal begin to see the war as pointless, and call for an end to it. They suspect that Portugal just cant lose a war.
  • Within the Byzantine Empire, Nerio I has spent the last two years in an effort to improve the financial muscle of the empire. Working as closely with the Venetians and the Genoans as possible the economic fortunes of the Empire have slowly improved. With the increased territory under his control, the population of the Empire has also increased in the last two years. With its enlarged state, the reconstituted Empire with its Western Emperor, was also increasingly home to more and more Byzantine nobles, including the heirs to the Orthodox Imperial title who waste little time in intriguing their way back onto the throne. The Latin's in the Empire are few in number and their traditional weakness' were still apparent. The Palaiologos family bide their time for now.
  • The Ottoman civil wars show no sign of slowing down, although it is now limited to two heirs. Mehmed III and Murad III were locked in conflict in the Anatolian heartlands of the Ottoman state. With both their attention on each other, the European territory was ignored and left to run by itself. In consequence the lands bordering that territory nibbled away at its land. The main beneficiaries of this were the Serbs who retook Kosovo and the Bulgars who re-established an independent state. The Byzantines also secured more of Thrace leaving only a rump of Ottoman ruled territory to the east of Albania

1448.

  • Ryazan forces fall back even further in Muscovy, keeping as hold of only former southern border areas of Muscovy. The Prince is able to convince most of the people of Ryazan that the conquests will give them glory, and more people with strong nationalist ideals sign up for the army. Progress in Poland-Lithuania continues, but at a slower rate, due to extended supply lines.
  • Portugal continues pressing back the combined African forces, but thousands are dying. The King initiates the Imperial Code, turning Portugal into an empire and establishing himself as an emperor for life. He envisions controlling all of Iberia and Northern Africa, and begins to institute laws that extend required military service and put more funding into weapons programs. This causes massive waves of unrest, for Portugal has been in constant war for many years. News of a rebellion grows.

1449

2E1449

  • See talk page re: Portugal
  • Poland-Lithuania makes peace with the HRE, Knights and Pskov to focus on its war with Ryazan.
  • With the war over, the Holy Roman Emperor expands the Empire's power, with the Pope's blessing granting two new electorates from the lands of the Teutonic Knights. The lands of the Livonian Order will be merged with the Archbishopric of Riga to create the Archbishopric of Livonia and joining the ecclesiastical electors, while the Grandmaster of the Knights is raised to the title of Grand Duke of Prussia, joining the secular electors.
  • Occitania, Burgundy, and Normandy make peace with France after forcing more concessions, although the King of Occitania hopes to one day unite all of the Occitan speaking peoples of southern France under his banner.
  • The duke of Friesland offers to help petition the Emperor to elevate the Duke of Burgundy's title to that of King in exchange for control over the Dutch lowlands.
  • The King of Wales-Ire, now known as Richard the Celt, begins massing his armies for war against his brother in England, known as Edward the Dour. Their brother known as William the Lesser due to his name and position in Normandy, continues to consolidate his power in Normandy, content with conquest of the French.
  • Normandy continues to expand its military. It begins to view Wales with caution. They heavily watch William the Lesser, due to his ties in Wales. Meanwhile, the defensive side of the military is heavily reinforced.
  • The Emperor of Portugal decides to add another clause to the Imperial Code saying that all persons in the Portuguese Empire must pay increased funds to fund a larger army advancing further into Africa. Portugal continues to advance against Granada, but the advance in Africa halts after the African tribes are finally able to unite to fight the Portuguese. the Emperor calls for another large army to move into Africa, further stripping Portugal of defences, making it perfect for the rebels planning to attack Portugal.

1450

  • The Mamluk Sultanate, having been routinely beaten by the Argonese forces, has spent the last two years building up an army and recruiting both mercenaries and Berber/Libyan tribesmen to its banner. The Argonese hold on the Egyptian litoral is open to envelopment, and this is what happens. Mamluk forces overwhelm the Argonese near the historical site of Pelusium (long since reduced to a few ruins and hovels). The Argonese forces were routed and as they fled were slaughtered almost to a man. The loss of the force greatly weakened their hold over Alexandria.
  • In Constantinople, the Byzantine nobility is slowly reasserting its hold over the apparatus of state. The Patriarch of Constantinople regains control of the Haiga Sophia from his Latin counterpart, with the position of Chamberlain also going to a member of the House of Angelos. Neiro II is increasingly hemmed in by his Greek nobility, but continues to try to strengthen the Empire and secure its European borders
  • Normandy continues to distance themselves from Wales-Ire.
  • The Aragonese pursue the Maronites and Melkites do to a revolution against the Mamluks.

1451

  • The young Kingdom of Bulgaria expands in the Balkans.
  • A rebellion in Connacht, Ireland, forces the Welsh to recreate the English-style parliament. This gives some form of representation to the other parts of the kingdom, although the king still controls most of the government.
  • Tensions within the Welsh Kingdom rise as the Welsh nobility feel too excluded from the English dominated high Court positions. The King, in the capital of Caernarfon is not aware yet of the precarious nature of the English heavy administration of the kingdom.
  • In Egypt, the Mamluks successfully crush the Marionite led insurrection and go on to institute one of the larger anti-Christian pogroms. The siege of Alexandria continues with the city rife with disease as the Mamluks successfully isolate it from land based support whilst the Mamluk navy continues to prevent Argonese shipping from reaching the city.

1452

  • Offended by the attack of the Mamluks toward the Maronites (in communion with the Church) and other Christians, the Pope demands the Mamluks back up or a Crusade will be called. The Patriarch of Constantinople does similar demands towards Copts and Orthodox Christians, which are also being persecuted in war.
  • The Kalmar Union gives more authority to its consecutive states of Sweden, Norway and Denmark.
  • The Maronites of Mount Lebanon along the Arameans of Syria call for the creation of a christian kingdom "from Mesopotamia, through Syria, the Greater Lebanon, Palestine, Egypt and Transjordan", and call for the pope to create a crusade against the Mamluks.
  • Tensions between the Welsh and the English is rising is that all contact has ceased between the two countries.
  • As the rebellion in Portugal grows, they halt the offensive in Africa and pull troops back to destroy the rebellion.
  • The Ottomans manage to conclude their civil war,but by now have no means of contacting the remaining loyal provinces outside Turkey, as all Baltic Coastline has been secured by Christian kingdoms.

1453

2E1453

  • Richard the Celt begins his invasion of England, held by his brother Edward, quickly taking Mann and the northwestern coast of England. The Cornish, hearing of Richard's favorable treatment of the Irish while ruling a Kingdom of Welsh see greater opportunity for equality under Richard and declare for him.
  • The nobility of Galicia, having established control over the area with the Portuguese military in the south, declare the rebirth of the kingdom of Galicia.
  • Troops pulled back from Africa begin putting down resistance in southern Portugal. The emperor's brother urges the Emperor to make concessions to keep the people happy in order to keep the empire from crumbling. He agrees.
  • The Byzantines, Bulgaria, and Serbia eliminate all Ottoman presence from continental Europe.
  • Thomas Palaiologos and a coalition of the most powerful nobles of the Byzantine empire approach Emperor Nerio with an ultimatum. Accept lordship of Athens as payment for his service to the empire and swear fealty to Thomas, or be killed and displayed on the palace gates. He agrees to the former, returning the Palaiologos family to their rightful throne.

1454

  • In Europe, the Popes call for a crusade has been largely ignored due to the pressures of war in Iberia, war in France, war in England & Ireland, war in northern Europe and war in the Russia's. The Patriarch's emotional call to arms (an unusual step for the Eastern Church) has also largely been ignored by the Orthodox Balkan peoples due to their struggles to regain their own independence and the local Bishops (in the Muslim controlled areas) not wishing to encourage local Muslim reprisals. As such the latest attempt at a Crusade fizzles to nothing.
  • In Egypt, Alexandria falls with a massive loss of life. Victorious, the Mamluks sweep northwards into Syria and Lebanon, crushing again the Maronites attempts at rebellion. The Mamluks notably protect those Christian areas not in rebellion against them as a pointed reminder of the power of the Mamluk State.
  • In Wales, the Welsh nobility are unhappy with the war against England, reinforcing as it does the English predominance of the "Welsh" Kingdom. The English armies start to see some success against the overstretched Anglo-Welsh-Irish forces of Richard the Celt.

1455

2E1455

  • Realizing something must be done to secure the loyalty of the Welsh nobility, Richard appoints a popular Welsh noble to the position of Lord Chancellor, second in power only the the King. He also promises after he claims the throne to grant the titles of English lords who take up arms against him and either die or refuse to swear fealty to loyal Irish, Welsh, and Cornish nobles. While this makes some of the English lords amongst his court unhappy, the majority see no problem as they are already loyal and won't be affected.
  • With the loyalty of his troops secured, Richard pushes further inland, his armies in the south pushing in along the coast in order to secure landing positions closer to London, while his northern armies push towards York, where if it falls, all of Northern England falls with it.
  • Portugal is forced to recognize the independence of Galicia, for now, with their troops ending the uprisings in the south. The Emperor, on the advice of his brother also issues the Grão Decredo, or Grand Decree, establishing a lesser house to parliament of ten seats to be filled by commoners of Yeoman or higher status. This lesser house will to rule on smaller domestic matters such as market charters, appointments of local magistrates and such, and would prove to greatly increase the prosperity of the Portuguese lower classes.

1456

  • Taking advantage of Portugal's problems with Castilian rebels, Castile and Granada declare war on Portugal. By the end of the year Seville has been recaptured, and the situation looks dire for the Portuguese.
  • See Talk Page re:Rebels
  • Furious, both the Pope and the Patriarch of Constantinople declare a Crusade against all Muslim forces, especially the Mamluks. Hundreds of thousands of Christians believe this is a good way to gain land and money, and flock towards Greater Lebanon.
  • The numerous Christian armies the pope and Patriarch could raise, mostly from Aragon, Occitania, the Balkan Alliance and the numerous republics of northern Italy, move ever closer to their target after leaving late in the year.
  • The English army is slowly stopping the advance in the north and pushing the Anglo-Welsh-Irish back. Meanwhile the advance in the south is slowing down to a standstill.

1457

  • A group of primarily Tuscan crusaders arrive in Antioch and overthrow the local Muslim rulers. This act draws the Ottomans into the war.
  • Castille and Granada moves deeper into Portugal. Meanwhile Portugal loses their African territories.
  • Greater Lebanon, along with the Syrian coast until Latakia, and Aleppo declare the christian kingdom of Maronistan.
  • In Scotland, James II marries his son and heir (the future James III) to the only daughter of the Lord of the Isles. In this way the two realms will be peacefully united when the pair ascend the Scottish Throne.
  • At the same time, James II probes at the Anglo-Scottish border, seeing to try to reclaim Strathclyde and other areas of southern Scotland conquered previously by the English state. Sending representatives to Caernarfon and the court of Richard IV (of England) I (of Wales and Ireland), James offers an alliance in return for the right of conquest along the Border's region (with the aim of restoring to the Scottish crown the territory of northern Cumbria along to the traditional Scottish border town of Berwick)
  • Richard IV accepts an alliance with Scotland and the conditions.
  • The war between England and Wales is now virtual standstill. No territory has been gained or lost.
  • Portugal is near collapse with the war with Castile and Granada.

1458

Second Europe

  • At the beginning of the year in the Middle East, the Mamluks begin to mobilise an army to march northwards towards the nascent Maronite Kingdom. The Sultan sends envoys to the various Turkic Emirates to the north and to the Ottoman Empire asking for their help in retaking the territory and to meet the new Crusader threat to Muslim lands.
  • Troops from northern Italy, officially the Papal Army but in reality let by Tuscans, Genoans, Milanese and Venetians, strikes in the Holy Land, taking several ports for the Crusade. While before the Maronites where barely in control of their land, with Crusader aid they begin to establish a real defense.
  • The Lordship of the Isles again lawfully breaks from Scotland's grasp, due to the fact that marriage is not legally binding under old Norse law (which the Lordship uses). Also, due to the fact that the Lordship is a semi-democratic oligarchy, marriage between the current thane's daughter and King James wouldn't be recognized as a rightful claim to the region in any case. They improve their already strong navy and open relations with Burgundy. As they are hoping to gain ports to be able to easily access the great cod banks of the North Sea and North Atlantic, Burgundy offers an alliance. Fearful of their neighbors, the Lordship accepts.
  • Frustrated in his attempts to regain the far western and northern areas of Scotland, James II concentrates now on his new Anglo-Welsh Alliance. Moving his troops into Strathclyde (now Scottish again following the new Alliance with Wales) James looks to strike southeast into the Borders region.
  • In the Middle East the Muslim leaders are shocked at how quickly again the Western Crusaders have managed to claim the coastal cities of Palestine. The shock of the loss of the Lebanon and the coastal plain of Palestine is enough to spur an alliance between the Mamluks and the Ottomans (traditional enemies). The new Ottoman Sultan is also looking to inflict revenge on Christians in general following the loss of the European Ottoman territories. Moving northwards, the Mamluk Sultan and his army reinforce Jerusalem and the Gazan cities whilst the Ottoman Sultan moves troops towards the northern border of the Maronite Kingdom.
  • With the newly sealed alliance with Scotland, Richard the Celt's forces push on towards York breaking through Edward the Dour's forces. Upon laying siege to York, several of the English lords, seeing Richard's gains and hearing of his agreement with the Irish and Welsh lords for the distribution of English titles, switch sides joining Richard. With the North all but lost, Edward pulls his forces south to defend London and attempt to push back Richard's southern forces.

1459

  • A force of the former Teutonic Knights lands in Antioch, further strengthening the crusader Kingdom. The Teutonic Knights are the most experienced and capable soldiers in all of Europe, and veterans of many recent wars. They begin expanding Antioch further North into Ottoman Territory.
  • Aragon launches an attack on Castile, claiming that their king has converted to Islam. It is not true, but they still manage to dig in a lot. This attack is pushed back to the borders.
  • Please Remember: Talk page is for discussion, not this
  • The Pope urges Aragon and Castile to accept peace in order to better the crusade. However, Castile and Aragon are too inflamed at the moment to listen to reason.
  • Normandy continues to take parts of Brittany. The already strong army invades from the East. Meanwhile, the navy lands some troops in northwestern Brittany. They begin to constrict on Breton territory.
  • Brittany tries fighting back, but the Norman army is very strong. They manage to reclaim some territory.
  • With England losing ground, the remaining English nobles got rid of Edward and forms a council to rule what is left of England. They sue for peace with Wales and Scotland. Edward flees to Normandy.

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