The Second Crusade was a conflict between Christian forces led by the Papal States against the Abbasid Caliphate's advances against the Byzantine Empire. The Fatimid Caliphate was also subjected to a degree of attacks namely in Southern Italy, although did not fight alongside the Abbasids. The Crusade started in 1027 and continued until 1053 over a series of Popes beginning with Pope John XIX.
The Crusade went through two periods of particular activity, slowing down somewhat by the election of Pope Benedict IX in 1032. By Pope Sylvester III's election the conflict had peaked again, and ended during his reign when he saw little reason to continue it under the stalemate that ensured.
While the Crusade was successful in halting Abbasid advances, the Byzantine Empire suffers political humiliation back in Europe. Despite Crusader support, it was unable to hold on to many parts of its land in the east and was seen as the beginning of Byzantine downfall in world politics. Crusading armies, too tired to march back to their home countries, remained in Byzantine but at a price. For further European commitment, Byzantine will have to sacrifice even more land to form Crusader States to house European armies to satisfy their greedy nations. These states would continue a war of attrition against the Abbasids in the Remnant War
In the Fatimid Caliphate, a weakening force would feel the brunt of foreign aggression on two sides. As Córdoba continues to advance on North West Africa by taking advantage of Fatimid troop movements to defend its Emirates in Italy. The Fatimids, suffering from its poor supply routes under attack, will lose some of its territory to Papal forces.
|Precursors||Discovery of Ard Marjhoola - Córdobian Civil War - Moorish-Berber Unionification|
|Inter-Caliphate Conflict||Córdoba-Fatimid Border War - Fatimid-Abbasid Border Conflicts|
|Caliphate invasions||Córdobian conquests of Christian lands - Fatimid conquests of Christian lands|
|Christian Reactions||First Crusade (Italy) - Second Crusade (Turkey) - Remnant War (Turkey)|