The Second Battle of the Pasig River

Ang Pangalawa Labanan ng Ilogo Pasig
La Segunda Batalla del Rio Pasig

الثانية معركة نهر باسيج





Pasig River areas, part of modern-day Makati City, Pasig City, Manila, Mandaluyong City


Decisive Muslim Tagalog, un-Hispanized Christian and Pangasinan victory, death of Principalia generals, Muslim re-occupation of Pasig River settlements, Muslim re-occupation of Quiapo and eastern Manila


Tagalog Muslims

Tagalog Hindus


Non-Hispanized Christian natives

Sultanates of Lanao

Sultanate of Sulu

Sultanate of Maguindanao


Hispanized Tagalogs



Lakan Malakas

Kuya Suleyman

Andrés Castañeda

Sultan Ahmed Kabungsuwan

Sultan Nasirud-Din I

Magat Abba

Enrique Gutierrez-Arroyo

Magat Salamat

Batang Dula

Karim bin Talib

Fernando de Tondo

Carlos Apolaqui

Juan Puyat

José Manansala

Apolaki Mendoza

Pedro Aganad-Gonzales


2,311,211 Tagalog Muslims, 900,000 Pangasinan warriors, 3,000 Maguindanaoans, 900 Maranaoans, 200 Tausūgs, 150 Arabs, Spanish rifles, Chinese guns, cannons, barong swords, Arabian swords

5,212,212 Hispanized Tagalogs, 1,000,000 Kapampangans, 2,121,211 additional Principalia and Hispanized forces, Spanish swords, Spanish guns, cannons

Casualties and Losses

932,231 dead, 40,022 wounded

3,221,212 dead

The Second Battle of the Pasig River (Tagalog: Pangalawa Labanan ng Pasig) (Spanish: La Segunda Batalla del Rio Pasig) (Arabic: الثانية معركة نهر باسيج) was fought in the areas around the Pasig River between Tagalog Muslim, Moro Muslim, Pangasinan and the Hispanized Tagalog and Kapampangans, and other Hispanized Filipino tribes. It was fought during the Philippine Tribal Civil War. The battle was a result of Lakan Malakas seeking Pangasinan for aid after Muslim loss during the First Battle of the Pasig River. The battle ended up in a decisive victory following the deaths of Fernando Lakandula de Tondo's Kapampangan colleagues during the war.

Lakan Malakas's Arrival in Pangasinan

After the loss at the First Battle of the Pasig River, Lakan Malakas and Kuya Suleyman, a Muslim missionary who was formerly a Catholic priest fled to Pangasinan. Although the Pangasinan people were devout Catholic converts from Islam, they helped Lakan Malakas and Kuya Suleyman escape the Principalia soldiers who chased after them. 

Kuya Suleyman Preaches to Pangasinan People

Being a Muslim missionary, Kuya Suleyman started to reintroduce Islam to the Pangasinan people. He also urged and convinced the Pangasinans to fight against the Principalia and Hispanized armies of the Philippines. However, Lakan Malakas held Kuya Suleyman back and told him that war was key and to worry about religion later. Kuya Suleyman and Lakan Malakas were very friendly and liked around the Pangasinan communities. They even befriended many Catholic clerics and celebrated Christian feasts along with the people. Despite being Muslim, it was said that Lakan Malakas and Kuya Suleyman even ate pork as he followed Folk Islam.

"Dear my people! Listen up, your brethren from Manila and Tondo has betrayed you! They are killing and enslaving my people, should none of you stand proud, they will do the same to you! These are not God-fearing people! They have collaborated with the greedy conquerors and do appreciate every evil they have done. Fight with me and I promise you a great gift, gifts of gold, wine and blessings!" - Kuya Sulayman addressing Pangasinans

Lakan Malakas Encounters Andrés Castañeda

Word got the ears of Andrés Castañeda, the governor and former colonial governor of the Provincia de Pangasinan. Andrés Castañeda has originally been a prominent chief and tribal leader either of Muslim or Hindu origin. Andrés Castañeda ventured out of his royal house to find out what was going on and heard Kuya Suleyman preaching war. But before he could act to put down the rebellion, Lakan Malakas negotiated with Andrés Castañeda. Lakan Malakas convinced Andrés Castañeda and taught him much of the pre-Hispanic history of the Philippines. Although the Pangasinan Silverplate Inscription doesn't record a date of this encounter, but a day after, Kuya Suleyman arrived and introduced or either re-introduced Islam to Andrés Castañeda. It is unsure of whether Castañeda reverted to Islam, according to the Pangasinan Silverplate Inscription, he reverted to Islam under the name and title of Datu Sudirman. But accounts of Catholic priests claimed that he remained a Catholic. Regardless, Andrés Castañeda, Lakan Malakas and Kuya Suleyman quickly befriended each other and built a bond of alliance. Thus, Andrés Castañeda finally agreed to lead a Pangasinan tribal force to drive the Hispanized Tagalogs out of the Muslim settlements in the Pasig River area.

"Sudirman (Andrés Castañeda) the man who governs the land of salt (Pangasinan), is one most definitely righteous." - Lakan Malakas

Magat Salamat and Batang Dula Join Lakan Malakas

Back in Manila, Fernando de Tondo tried to convince his (and Lakan Malakas's) brothers, Magat Salamat and Batang Dula to join him in his war against the Muslims. Magat Salamat and Batang Dula had an extensive talk over it. De Tondo even intimidated both. Batang Dula, the eldest of the Lakandula lineage was married to the younger sister of Martin de Goiti,  which sealed a pact between Tondo and Spain. Batang Dula chose not to take part, while Magat Salamat decided to join his older brother in Pangasinan. The next day, Batang Dula instructed his Spanish wife to leave the Philippines because he also chose to join Lakan Malakas and Magat Salamat and convert to Islam. Magat Salamat remained a Catholic, and Batang Dula chose to have Magat Abba convert him to Islam. Dula's wife was saddened and angered by Batang Dula's departure. She urged and encouraged Fernando de Tondo to defeat the Muslim tribes and bring Batang Dula back. In turn, Fernando assured her of this. 

Pasig River Settlements under Fernando de Tondo's Administration

Meanwhile in the Pasig River area, Fernando de Tondo was strengthening his rule and religious authority. He extensively worked to convert the Muslim populations to Roman Catholicism.  Many of the Muslims who successfully resisted were those who kept old Spanish weapons from both the First Philippine Revolution and the First Battle of the Pasig River. Fernando de Tondo put these Muslim tribes under the utmost bottom of his caste system. Many of the Muslims he captured were enslaved and converted to Catholicism. He hired a police militia force to put the Muslims under complete watch. Lakan Malakas sent a Pangasinan scout by the name of Enrique Gutierrez-Arroyo to spy on Fernando de Tondo's police force. Fernando de Tondo has mistaken the Pangasinan people to be their allies. There were prominent Pangasinans in the Principalia, who also were spies for Lakan Malakas. When the time was right according to Enrique Gutierrez-Arroyo, then the new combined force of Tagalog Muslims and Pangasinans would attack. Enrique went to and from preparing a resistance, getting families to take up arms without Fernando de Tondo knowing. Enrique gave Fernando de Tondo the impression that he was confiscating weapons from people. 

"The wicked man who rules over the once-great Pasig River, home to Maynila and Tondo still using God as an excuse to pillage and plunder the natives. His judgment will come. He is capturing women, enslaving them and beating them all using God as an excuse.........he is killing innocents. The time to attack is coming." Enrique's Report back to Lakan Malakas.

Tagalog Muslims Rebel 

Enrique Gutierrez-Arroyo used a gun shot as the signifying start of the Muslim revolt under Fernando de Tondo. According to the Pangasinan Silverplate Inscription, Enrique shot an old Spanish rifle on a June on 1567 of an unknown date. The description was that of the "sixth month of 1567" although it could have been the Muslim calendar. Tagalog Muslims raided Carlos Apolaqui's base, which only contained a garrison of 10,000 Tagalogs and 10,000 Kapampangans. The battle lasted no more than a few hours, until Carlos Apolaqui was killed himself in battle. The remaining Catholic Tagalogs surrendered. This caused José Manansala to retaliate by attacking a barangay that contained a mix of Muslim and Hindu inhabitants without a leader in the southwestern Pasig River area. Out of the settlements, the Quiapo barangay was one of the most armed. Fernando de Tondo failed to suppress the armed Muslims in Quiapo. Amid fighting, Enrique Gutierrez-Arroyo encountered José Manansala and killed him in the battle with a mixed army of Christians and Muslims.

Mindanao's Sultans React and Aid Tagalog Muslim Tribes

Many Tagalog Muslims had fled to Mindanao after Lakan Malakas fled to Pangasinan following his defeat during the previous Pasig River battle. These Tagalog Muslims asked their sultans for help. The sultans of Sulu, Maguindanao and the Lanao kingdoms responded by agreeing to send generals to Luzon to help the Muslim tribes fight the Principalia forces. Initially, the sultans of Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago agreed to help the Muslim tribes, being surprised that Islam had still existed in an area that Spain converted to Catholicism. Sultan Ahmed Kabungsuwan of Maguindanao, a descendant of Shariff Kabungsuwan met with Sultan Naisirud-Din I of Sulu, along with several sultans from Mindanao in Cotabato City. Kabungsuwan sent 3000 Maguindanaoan soldiers, Naisirud-Din I sent 200 Tausūgs and the Maranaoan sultans sent a total of 900 soldiers. Karim bin Talib also brought along soldiers from Arabia.

"Our brothers in Luzon need help, many have finally woken up against the tyranny and the unneeded and unwanted appreciation for the conquerers that most Tagalogs and Visayans have spread. We shall help them." - Sultan Kabungsuwan

Pangasinans and Tagalog Muslims Attack Principalia Garrisons

Fernando de Tondo did receive word of the coming Muslim attack from the south. He prepared a garrison led by Juan Puyat in the southern Pasig River although Lakan Malakas and his Tagalog Muslim and Pangasinan armies were already on the advance. By morning, a soldier by the name of Alejandro Alimboyugen watched boats approach from the northwestern Pasig River before being shot by a crossbow and killed. Juan Puyat had realized that that attack would not  come from the south and re-prepared his soldiers to aim their focus in the northwest. As Lakan Malakas's armies approached into the garrison, Juan Puyat's soldiers attacked enjoying only a few minutes of success until they were outpowered and realized that they were outnumbered as well. Juan Puyat's Kapampangan captain, Apolaki Mendoza advised that he order a retreat. Realizing that he could not defeat Lakan Malakas's army, Juan Puyat ordered a retreat back to Manila Bay. Apolaki Mendoza took a blade to the chest by a Pangasinan and was mortally wounded. As the Principalia soldiers fled to Manila Bay, Mendoza was left behind. Lakan Malakas himself took a spear and killed Mendoza. 

"The age of the conquerors is over. Now, comes the time of the righteous." - Lakan Malakas

Tribes from Mindanao Arrive and Attack Principalia

While fleeing to Manila Bay, the Moro Muslim soldiers from Mindanao arrived and attack the fleeing defeated army. Juan Puyat had to fight his way to escape the attack. Lakan Malakas did not expect Mindanao's sultans  to help, the two armies met in an unknown barangay and took over Puyat's former garrison. In Manila, Fernando de Tondo commanded Juan Puyat to retake the Pasig River garrison. Puyat argued against it, saying it was suicide but Fernando de Tondo used fear and discouragement to convince Puyat. Juan Puyat tried to attack the combined garrison with soldiers on horses. But Lakan Malakas and the armies from Mindanao killed Puyat's army with guns, cannons and crossbows, none survived. Puyat was mortally injured and fled to southern Luzon cursing Fernando de Tondo. Now Fernando had just lost one of his best commanders, forcing him to rely on himself and his Tagalog commander Pedro Aganad-Gonzales along with 300 untrained Kapampagan leaders who were all of royal descent, used to living in the elite royal homes and not in the battlefield. Before Pedro Aganad-Gonzales could meet Fernando Lakandula, he and his army were ambused by Kuya Suleyman's armies. Neither side retreated, and the small battle lasted for two days which resulted in Pedro's death. Fernando de Tondo and his 300  chiefs prepared one last stand, of 3,000,000 Hispanized Filipino tribes where he and brother, Lakan Malakas and his army finally re-met. Lakan Malakas soundly defeated the 300 chiefs killing them all in battle. Additionally, his army destroyed as much Principalia bases and garrisons as possible. Eventually, Fernando de Tondo was surrounded. Lakan Malakas gave him the choice to join them and order the Principalia to surrender or to be killed. He surrendered and was allowed to live. Fernando de Tondo fled to northern Luzon where he was taken care of by a native Ilocano family and died of old age there. 

Ad blocker interference detected!

Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.