New Caledonia

New Caledonia in 1770. The colony on the Golden Isle was founded in 1800.

In OTL The Darien scheme, an attempt by the Kingdom of Scotland to colonise the Isthmus of Panama, failed and was one of the motivations for the 1707 Acts of Union. *There* the colonisation attempt succeeds and New Caledonia becomes a thriving colony. Scotland becomes a major player in world affairs.


In this timeline Charles I's parliament never declared the future Charles II rightful king of England. England remained as The Commonwealth (and a dictatorship). Charles II of Scotland had a legitimate son. Which meant his brother, James, was never crowned king of Scotland. The legitimate son's name was Afonso, after his great grandfather. On the advice of his mother Afonso I signed an alliance with Portugal and renewed the Auld Alliance with France.


The first expedition of five ships (Saint Andrew, Caledonia, Unicorn, Dolphin, and Endeavour) set sail from Leith on 14 July 1698, with around 1,200 people on board. Their orders were to proceed to the Bay of Darien, and make the Isle called the Golden Island … some few leagues to the leeward of the mouth of the great River of Darien … and there make a settlement on the mainland. After calling at Madeira and the West Indies, the fleet made landfall off the coast of Darien on 2 November. The settlers christened their new home "New Caledonia".

There they cut a canal through the neck of land that divided one side of the harbour in Caledonia Bay from the ocean, and constructed Fort St Andrew, equipped with fifty cannon, on the peninsula behind the canal. On a mountain, at the opposite side of the harbour, they built a watch house. Close to the fort they began to erect the huts of the main settlement, New Edinburgh, and to clear land for growing yams and maize.

In OTL several factors caused the colony to fail. But in this timeline, with French and Portuguese help, the colony survives. Relations with the natives were always good. They had traded and met with the settlers at regular intervals. The Spanish Empire regarded the territory as theirs. However, King Afonso I was very charismatic and very likeable and also a diplomatic genius. He and King Charles II of Spain soon became good friends and he relinquished the claim to the territory allowing New Caledonia to continue thriving. Charles realised that Scottish trade would have to pass through Spanish ports and could be taxed.

On September 30 a second expedition, containing 1000 colonists arrived at New Edinburgh. Third and Fourth expeditions would arrive in the months to come. Around new Edinburgh, improved port facilities were built allowing more ships to arrive at the colony.

Economic and Population Boom

There was a economic boom in Scotland by the end of 1669 partly due to the New Caledonia Company (NCC) which helped trade in New Caledonia grow. The main exports of New Edinburgh were; chocolate; sugar; tobacco and, eventually, silver and gold. Even the local animals were exported. These products were mainly exported to Norway, Denmark, the German and Italian states and Russia (these nations did not have many (if any) new world colonies and were in close proximity to Scotland, closer than say, Spain or Portugal). Many new factories were built. Most of them were cotton factories. During this time the Forbes chocolate factory was built (the factory would later become an international household name). The Bank of Scotland was also founded around this time.

The population boom was the result of a reduction of taxes, (allowing people to live better lives) better farming techniques (people were growing more food, allowing them to sell the excess) and a better road network across lowland Scotland (which allowed people in the cities to eat better food imported from the countryside). By the turn of the century the population of Scotland was well on its way to hitting the one million mark.

Naval Reform Act 1669

The Scottish parliament and King agreed that a strong navy was required to help defend Scotland's interests over-seas. The King declared that several new ships be built and that the older ships of the navy, except the Michael (all two of them) be "recycled". The Michael became the Michael II. She was given eight more guns (bringing the number up to 32) and she was completely retrofitted because she was almost 200 years out of date. The Several French ships were "loaned" to Scotland (loans which were never repayed). They were renamed Campbell, Cameron, Wallace and Malcom. five ships were ordered and two of them were laid down in December of 1669. The first, Baugé was completed in 1673 just in time to help defend Glasgow from a naval bombardment by the English Navy (another ship had been completed at the same time but was destroyed by fire during the bombardment).

Also, as part of the reform, the gunsmiths and cannon-makers across the kingdom began making the Mons model of cannon (20" caliber of cannon balls) to be used on the ships and in the armies of Scotland.

Tensions Rise, War breaks out.

On November 25 1770 six English ships arrived just across the bay from New Edinburgh and founded the town of Cromwell and built Fort St.George without much opposition from the Scottish settlers. Tensions rose between the two colonies and countries when the English settlers opened a silver mine near Cromwell and Royal English Navy ships began arriving. Scottish ships soon begin arriving too. On June 6 1760 an English vessel named the Red Rose(64 guns) fired a shot at the Royal Scots Navy ship, Alexander III (60 guns), which had been built the previous year. The two ships exchanged a flurry of cannon fire with the Alexander III coming out on top. That night a group of 13 Scottish marines led by Captain Livingston (mimicking a similar attack led by Robert the Bruce) captured the English third-rate battleship Comus. The Comus (60 guns) along with the Scottish ships Campbell (32 guns) and the Great Michael II (64 guns) conducted a naval bombardment of Cromwell and Fort St. George. These actions would spark the first of many Anglo-Scottish war.

Anglo-Scottish War

First Anglo–Scottish War


Date 1670–1677
Location New Caledonia, Irish Sea, Ireland, Scotland, England, English Channel, North Sea, Atlantic Ocean, New England, North Carolina, South Carolina, Quebec

Scottish and French victory. Ireland and northern England ceded to Scotland. Annexation of the Isle of Man, Labrador, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Newfoundland by Scotland.

Channel islands and all other Canadian colonies ceded to France.

Republic of Carolina formed. Confederation of New England formed. Kingdom of Virginia formed. United States of America formed ( all other states).

Commonwealth of England Scotland


Lord Protector Simon Brook King Afonso
Casualties and losses
Commonwealth of England

56 warships lost 30 warships captured 10,150 dead 20,000 wounded, 6,000 civilians killed


2 Warships lost. 20,000 dead 14,000 wounded. 4,300 captured. 5,000 civilians killed France

40 warships lost 13,310 dead 25,000 wounded 2,000 captured

Aftermath of the First Anglo-Scottish War

Aftermath of the First Anglo-Scots War The war ended with the 13 colonies becoming an independent nation, The United States of America, and Scotland annexing the pre-seven years war Canadian colonies, Ireland and Northern England as far south as Newcastle. England was also forced to hand over most of it's navy. they were left with fewer than 30 ships. Effectively crippling England's ability to make war. Spain annexed Florida. The United States claimed Florida as theirs almost immediately after gaining independence.

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