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Scotland (Scotland says "Yes")

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Commonwealth of Scotland
Alba
Timeline: Scotland says "Yes"
OTL equivalent: Scotland
50 Royal Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Scotland.svg
Motto: 
Nemo me impune lacessit (Latin: "No one attacks me with impunity")
Anthem: 
Scotland the Brave
Ssym.png
Location of Scotland (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)

– in the European Union (green)
CapitalEdinburgh
Largest city Glasgow
Other cities Aberdeen, Dundee, Paisley, East Kilbride, Livingston, Hamilton, Cumbernauld, Dunfermline
Official languages English, Scots, Scottish Gaelic
Ethnic groups (2011) Aprox.

96.0% White 2.7% Asian 0.7% Black 0.4% Mixed 0.2% Arab

0.1% Other
Demonym Scottish, Scots
International Organisations European Union
Government Parliamentary Constitutional Monarchy
 -  Queen Elizabeth II
 -  Governor-General David Steel
 -  Prime Minister Alex Salmond
 -  Deputy Prime Minister Nicola Sturgeon
Legislature Scottish Houses of Parliament (Holyrood)
 -  Upper house Senate of Scotland
 -  Lower house National Assembly
Formation
 -  Formation 9th Century 
 -  Union with England 1 May 1707 
 -  Devolution 19 November 1998 
 -  Independence Referendum 19th September 2014 
 -  Independence 1 May 2015 
EU accession 2017
Area
 -  FR_foot4 78,772 km2 
30,090 sq mi 
Population
 -   estimate 5,327,700 (2013) 
 -   census 5,313,600 (2011) 
GDP (PPP) 2015 estimate
 -  Total 140 billion 
Currency Euro
Time zone GMT (UTC)
Drives on the Left
Calling code +44
Patron saint Saint Andrew

Scotland is an Independent sovereign state located in the North of the Island of Great Britain, in North-West Europe. It gained independence from the United Kingdom in May 2015.

Etymology

The noun "Scotland" comes from the Latin Scoti for the Gaels. Scotia was the Late Latin for "land of the Gaels", and was originally used to refer to Ireland. However, by the 11th Century, Scotia was being used to refer to the Gaelic-speaking areas of Scotland north of the River Forth, in addition to Albania and Albany, derived from Gaelic Alba. By the end of the Late Middle Ages, Scots and Scotland became the norm to refer to what is now Scotland.

History

Early History

Any pre-mesolithic human habitation is unknown, due to repeated glaciations destroying evidence, though it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago.

Hadrian Era Coin

Coin of Hadrian, "builder" of the Wall

By 9500 years ago there were permanent houses, and by 6000 years ago there were permanent settlements.

England and Wales were administered by Rome from 43 AD, yet Scotland remained independent, often raiding Roman Forts. The still-visible Hadrian's Wall was built in 122 AD, not only to stop the Scots from raiding, but also to control tribes on the Roman-side. However, apart from a 40 year occupation of parts of Northern Scotland, the Picts remained undefeated.

Middle Ages

The Kingdom of Scotland (or "Alba") began as the Kingdom of the Picts in the 6th Century, based in Fortriu. By the 10th Century the Pictish Kingdom controlled most areas of Gaelic Culture, and by the end of the 13th Century it controlled approximately its current borders.

After several centuries of wars and skirmishes with England, in 1502 James IV of Scotland signed the Treaty of Perpetual Peace with Henry VII of England, and married Henry's daughter, Margaret Tudor. However, it wasn't until 1603, after Elizabeth I died heirless, that James VI, King of Scots, inherited both the thrones of England and Ireland, and was crowned James I of England and Ireland. Despite the Union of Crowns, Scotland and England remained separate state with the same Monarch (apart from the short period of the Protectorate, when Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell ruled over the Three Kingdoms).

On the 22nd July 1706 the Treaty of Union was signed by representatives of the Scottish and English Parliament and the following year the Acts of Union were passed by both bodies, creating the Parliament of the Kingdom of Great Britain, in effect from the 1st May 1707.

Modern Era

Trade tariffs with England were now abolished, causing trade to rapidly increase, especially with Colonial America; until the American Revolution, Glasgow was the world's main tobacco port, and dominated world trade.

In 1832, the Scottish Reform Act increased the number of Scottish MPs, and by the latter part of the 19th Century the post of Secretary of State for Scotland was recreated. As parts of Scotland grew wealthier, Glasgow, an industrial city, became known as "the Second City of the Empire", after London. Clydeside shipyards specialised in iron steamships from 1860, which began to quickly replace the wooden vessels of merchant and battle fleets of the world.

In the 20th Century, Scotland played a major role in the British effort in the First World War, providing manpower, ships, machinery, fish and money, and of a population of 4.8 million in 1911 Scotland sent over half a million men. However, over a quarter died in combat or from disease, and 150,000 were seriously wounded.

The post-war depression saw a radical movement called "Red Clydeside", led by militant unionists, in the formerly Liberal Stronghold. The shipbuilding industry continued to expand, but was hit by the economy in 1922 and did not properly recover until 1939. These years were marked, as with many European cities, by economic stagnation and high unemployment, along with deep social, cultural, economic and political shifts. Fewer young people left Scotland, indefinitely or permanently, for other parts of the Empire.

However, during the Second World War, despite large-scale bombings of cities by the Luftwaffe, it saw renewed prosperity; indeed, it saw the development of Radar, which was invaluable in the British Victory of the Battle of Britain.

After 1945, Scotland's economic situation regressed due to overseas competition (particularly Globalisation) and industrial dispute. More recently it has been seeing an economic (and cultural) rebirth, especially thanks to the North Sea oil and gas industries. In 1998 a Scottish parliament and Government was created, the first of many changes on the path to independence.

Independence

Main Article: Timeline of Events 

On the 19th September 2014 the results of the referendum "Should Scotland be an Independent Nation" were announced as being overwhelmingly "yes". Over the next couple of months UK and Scottish representatives negotiated, and at midnight on the 15th March 2015 the Union Flag was lowered for the last time in Scotland, as it became an independent nation.

Geography

Mainland Scotland comprises of the northern third of Great Britain, with a total area of 78,772km², or 30,414 square miles, about the same size as the Czech Republic. The nation's only land border is with the United Kingdom, which runs for 96km, (or 60 miles), between the basin of the River Tweed in the east and the Solway Firth to the west. However, Ireland is only 30km, or 19 miles, from the peninsula of Kintyre.

Climate

Scotland has a temperate, oceanic climate, which is prone to be very changeable. It is warmed by the Gulf Stream, meaning it has mild winters (though cooler, wetter summers) than areas on similar latitudes. Temperatures, however, tend to still be lower than other areas of Great Britain.

Economy

Scotland has an open mixed economy, which is closely linked to both Europe and the wider world. Though traditionally the Scottish economy has been dominated by heavy industries such as shipbuilding, coal mining and steel industries, since the 1970's and 1980's there has been much de-industrialisation, and a movement towards a more service-oriented economy. However, with recent oil and gas extractions, the industry has been moving, and since, after independence, many corporations relocated to London, while there are still many service jobs, many people are starting to move back to industrial jobs.

It is estimated that total Scottish exports are 30 billion Euros, with about 59% being attributed to manufacturing. Primary exports still currently include whiskey, electronics and financial services.

Since its independence from the United Kingdom, Scotland's economy has deteriorated, though it is slowly stabilizing.

Demographic

Scottish Population by Ethnic Group
% of Total Population Population
White Scottish 84.0 4,445,678
White Other British 7.9 417,109
White Irish 1.0 54,090
White Gypsy/Traveller 0.1 4,212
White Polish 1.2 61,201
Other White Ethnic Group 1.9 102,117
White Total 96.0 5,084,407
Pakistani 0.9 49,381
Indian 0.6 32,706
Bangladeshi 0.1 3,788
Chinese 0.6 33,706
Other

0.4

21,097
Asian 2.7 140,678
Caribbean 0.1 3,430
Black 0.0 2,380
Caribbean or Black Other 0.0 730
Carribbean or Black Other 0.1 6,540
African 0.6 29,638
Mixed or multiple ethnic groups 0.4 19,815
Arab 0.2 9,366
Other 0.1 4,959
Other Ethnic Groups 0.3 14,325
Total Population 100.00 5,295,403

Military

Main Article: Scottish Armed Forces

The Scottish Armed forces are relatively small considering the size of Scotland, as it is assumed it is fairly unlikely that Scotland would be attacked. Despite not being a member of NATO it would be protected by the UK and NATO.

The main operations of the Scottish Armed Forces are to protect Scottish Oil Rigs and Fishing rights, and to provide humanitarian aid and peacekeeping missions.

Foreign Relations

Scottish Passaport

The Scottish Passport adopted after their independence and their joining at the EU.

Scotland is a member of the United Nations, and is currently in the process of applying to the European Union.

Scotland holds positive relations with most of the EU, though ties with the UK are sometimes strained. However, due to its continued support for Catalonian and Basque independence, Spain is currently blocking Scotland's entry to the EU. Scotland also holds positive relations with Kurdistan and Russia, the latter of which sometimes has strained relationships with the West.

Culture

Scottish National Anthem

Scotland The Brave02:53

Scotland The Brave

The national anthem of Scotland


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