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In 1266 (as OTL), Scotland bought the Hebrides and Man from Norway. The divergence came when 1286 the "maid of Norway" didn't drown, but arrived safely in Scotland. However in 1290, the young queen (nine years) dies. King Edward I of England interfered for the succession, and John Balliol became new king. 1296, the Auld Alliance between France and Scotland was made (everything happened about one year later than OTL). In 1297, the war between England and Scotland broke out. The Scottish uprisings under William Wallace started 1298, and 1306 Robert the Bruce was crowned king of Scotland, starting the Bruce dynasty. 1307, Edward I died, not without having defeated the Scots twice (not just once as OTL). During the 1310s, the Scots defeated the English several times, thanks to their pike fighters. TTL Edward II of England had started in a better position, and wasn't as incompetent as his OTL counterpart, but after many fights he got tired too. So the Scots became independent again, only had to cede the territory south of the Firths (Wall of Antoninus), which was Anglified in the following centuries.
1345, Scotland entered the first Aquitainian War against England, hoping to get the lost lands back. But 1354, having won against France and thus free to make war against Scotland, the English defeated them soon. The pre-war border was restored.
During the years 1350-75, due to growing demand for food, Scotland (like other western European nations) extended fishery in the North Atlantic, going farther and farther west.
Together with Norway
The following decades weren't easy. 1399, the Black Death stroke Scotland. In 1409, Raibeart, the younger brother of king Daibidh III, tried to conspire with some Norwegians to become king of Norway himself - without success. 1416, he tried to murder his brother, but his conspiracy was prevented, and he was incarcerated for the rest of his life. (Unfortunately for him, he'd become 80 years old.)
1426, Scotland decided to follow the Danes & Dutch on their trips, established colonies around OTL Cape Cod, which was called New Scotland ITTL. But soon after, in 1435 Black Death also hit the New World, destroying some small European settlements too; other trade places had to be given up, since the Atlantean trade partners had died or didn't want to have contact with the Europeans any more. They now concentrated on the colony on Martha's Vineyard.
1463/64, England defeated Scotland and took their colony of New Scotland, which was renamed New England, of course. The capital of the colony, Perth beyond the Ocean, was renamed after the winner of the battle, Boston.
Scotland-Norway also entered the third Aquitainian War 1477-83, which ended with Aquitaine finally becoming French. But 1479/80, Sweden made war with Norway, occupied and annexed Norwegian province of Jämtland. And 1487, the English took the Scottish capital of Perth; king Daibidh V and his three sons had to flee to Norway. The Shetland and Orkney islands became English, too. The Bruce dynasty still claimed the Scottish throne; but in 1506, nominal king Daibidh V died, and his heir was just three years old. The nobles used the opportunity and set up a nobles' Republic similar as Aragon. They planned to kill the prince, but he was smuggled by some loyal Scottish followers out of Norway; they first fled to Denmark, later to the Netherlands and France.
|King: Edward V Plantagenet
Religion: Occidental Schism
Under English rule meanwhile, an interesting event happened in 1522: A Russian ship from Kholmogory (at the site of OTL Archangelsk) had gone around Scandinavia and found its way to Scotland. After some confusion, the Scots found a cleric who could speak Greek to translate. This lead to the start of direct British-Russian trade.
The future for the Bruce dynasty seemed over. But in 1521, the heir of the Norwegian and Scottish throne, Prince Alasdair / Alexander went to Atlantis, where he spent some time around the Caribbean. He also approached the Tenochca and learned about their gold riches. Knowing that the Quadruple Monarchy was close to conquer their lands, he went to warn the French king. Now the Great Occidental War broke out.
1528, France felt threatened and needed a diversion. "Prince Alasdair" returned from Atlantis to Scotland, soon gained followers, started guerrilla war against the English. In 1530, the Scots defeated the English army at the battle of Stirling, reconquered the Lowlands. After his rebellious colony of Morocco was secured 1543, the insulted Quadruple king Edward V wanted to get rid of Prince Alasdair, so he moved his troops not to Aquitaine, but Scotland. The Castillian and Portuguese troops weren't accustomed to the land and the climate, which weakened them. In 1546, after several indecisive battles, Prince Alasdair decided to let the troops of the enemy march deep into the Highlands, making them believe they were chasing the Scots. As the chronicles write, certainly no other Scot leader would have been able to demand that of his people - which proved Alasdair's charisma. He didn't disappoint the Scots: At October 10th, they destroyed their enemy in the battle of Callander.
In the peace of Barcelona 1547 the Quadruple Monarchy had to accept the independence of Scotland-Ireland under new king Alexander / Alasdair IV in Europe. Prince Alasdair later also won his throne of Norway back in 1562, plus several other thrones.
After the death of Alasdair IV in 1588, his vast lands were divided: Scotland and Ireland went to his elder son Alasdair V. But after his death in 1606, king Henry V of the Triple Monarchy of England-Castille-Portugal managed to become accepted as new king of Ireland. And in 1628, Scotland again became an "estates republic", declaring they had the right for that, since there was no legitimate king any more.
Loss of independence
Scotland joined its old ally France in the anti-French War. Again, they would suffer for it, as in 1490: Scotland was conquered and annexed by England in the peace of Amsterdam 1694. Despite of Scottish uprisings from time to time, its status in the new kingdom of Britain wouldn't change from now on. Scots who hated the situation would emigrate, often even to non-English speaking countries like German Atlantis. Otherwise, their soldiers would fight in British wars, like the French Republican Wars. The Lowlands would become completely Anglified now.
Under the Socialists