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San Marino (Scotland says "Yes")

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Republic of San Marino
Repubblica di San Marino
Timeline: Scotland says "Yes"
OTL equivalent: San Marino
Flag of San Marino.svg Coat of arms of San Marino.svg
"Libertas" (Liberty)
Inno Nazionale della Repubblica (National Anthem of the Republic)
Location San Marino Europe.png
CapitalCity of San Marino
Largest city Dogana
Other cities Serravalle, Domagnano, Featano, Borgo Maggiore, Fiorentino, Chiesanuova and Acquaviva
Official languages Italian
Ethnic groups  Italians
Demonym Sammarinese
Government Unitary parliamentary directorial republic
 -  Captains Regent Lorella Stefanelli Nicola Renzi
Legislature Grand and General Council
 -  Independence form the Roman Empire 3 September 301 
 -  Total 61.2 km2 (222th)
24 sq mi 
 -  2012 estimate 32,576 
Currency Euro ()
Time zone +1 (UTC+2)
Drives on the Right
Calling code +378
Patron saint Saint Agatha
San Marino, officially the Republic of San Marino, and sometimes known as The Most Serene Republic of San Marino, is a sovereign state in the North of the Italian Penisula.


Saint Marinus left the island of Arba, in present-day Croatia, with his lifelong friend Leo, and went to the city of Rimini as a stonemason. After the Diocletianic Persecution following his Christian sermons, he escaped to the nearby Monte Titano, where he built a small church and founded what is now the city and state of San Marino, sometimes still called the "Titanic Republic". The official date of the founding of what is now known as the Republic is the 3rd September 301. In 1631, its independence was recognized by the Papacy.

Unification of Italy

During the later phase of the Italian unification process in the 19th century, San Marino served as a refuge for many people persecuted for their support of unification. In recognition of this support, Giuseppe Garibaldi accepted the wish of San Marino not to be incorporated into the new Italian state. The government of San Marino made United States President Abraham Lincoln an honorary citizen. He wrote a reply, saying that the Republic proved that a "government founded on Republican principles is capable of being so administered as to be secure and enduring."

Modern Times

During World War I, when Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary on the 23rd May 1915, San Marino remained neutral and Italy adopted a hostile view of Sammarinese neutrality, suspecting that San Marino could harbor Austrian spies who could be given access to its new radiotelegraph station. Italy tried to forcibly establish a detachment of Carabinieri in the republic, and then cut the republic's telephone lines when it did not comply. Two groups of ten volunteers joined Italian forces in the fighting on the Italian front, the first as combatants and the second as a medical corps operating a Red Cross field hospital. The existence of this hospital later caused Austria-Hungary to suspend diplomatic relations with San Marino. From 1923 to 1943, San Marino was under the rule of the Sammarinese Fascist Party. The front passes Monte Titano in September 1944. During World War II, San Marino remained neutral; the Fascists regained power on the 1st April 1944, but kept neutrality intact. Despite that, on the 26th June 1944 San Marino was bombed by the Royal Air Force, in the belief that it had been overrun by German forces and was being used to amass stores and ammunition. San Marino accepted thousands of civilian refugees when Allied forces went over the Gothic Line. In September 1944, it was briefly occupied by German forces, who were defeated by Allied forces in the Battle of San Marino. San Marino had the world's first democratically elected  a Communist government, which held office between 1945 and 1957. San Marino became a member of the Council of Europe in 1988 and of the United Nations in 1992. It is not a member of the European Union, although it uses the euro as its currency.


San Marino is a state, on the border between the Federal Republic of Padania and the Italian Republic and about 10 km (6.21 mi) from the Adriatic coast at Rimini. Its topography is dominated by the Apennine mountain range, and it has a rugged terrain. The highest point in the country, the summit of Monte Titano, is situated at 749m (2,457 ft) above sea level.

There are no bodies of water of any significant size. San Marino is the third smallest country in Europe, with only the Vatican City and Monaco being smaller. San Marino has no flat ground; it is entirely composed of hilly terrain.

Administrative Regions

Map of San Marino


San Marino Grand and General Council Composition 2014.svg

The Grand and General Council of San Marino.

San Marino has the political framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic: the Captains Regent are both heads of state and heads of government, and there is a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. 

Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Grand and General Council. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The legislature of the Republic is the Grand and General Council. The Council is a unicameral legislature with 60 members. There are elections every five years by proportional representation in all nine administrative districts. These districts correspond to the old parishes of the Republic.

Every six months, the council elects two Captains Regent to be the heads of state. The Regents are chosen from opposing parties so that there is a balance of power. They serve a six-month term. The investiture of the Captains Regent takes place on the 1st April and the 1st October every year. Once their term is over, citizens have three days in which to file complaints about the Captains' activities. If they warrant it, judicial proceedings against the ex-head(s) of state can be initiated.

Administrative Divisions

San Marino is divided into the following nine municipalities, known locally as castelli (meaning "castles").

  • San Marino is the capital.

There are also eight minor municipalities:

  • Acquaviva
  • Borgo Maggiore
  • Chiesanuova
  • Domagnano
  • Faetano
  • Fiorentino
  • Montegiardino
  • Serravalle



A patrol of the Gendarmerie where control the traffic in out and in exit from San Marino

San Marino has one of the smallest military forces in the world. National defence is, by arrangement, the responsibility of Italy's armed forces. Different branches have varying functions, including: performing ceremonial duties; patrolling borders; mounting guard at government buildings and assisting police in major criminal cases. The police are not included in the Military of San Marino.

Crossbow Corps

Once at the heart of San Marino's army, the Crossbow Corps is now a ceremonial force of approximately eighty volunteers. Since 1295, the Crossbow Corps has provided demonstrations of crossbow shooting at festivals. Its uniform is medieval in design. While still a statutory military unit, the Crossbow Corps has no military function in the present day.

Guard of the Rock

The Guard of the Rock is a front-line military unit in the San Marino armed forces; a state border patrol, with responsibility for patrolling borders and defending them. In their role as Fortress Guards they are responsible for guarding the Palazzo Pubblico in San Marino City, the seat of national Government.

In this role they are the forces most visible to tourists, and are known for their colourful ceremony of Changing the Guard. Under the 1987 statute the Guard of the Rock are all enrolled as 'Criminal Police Officers' (in addition to their military role) and assist the police in investigating major crimes. The uniform of the Guard of the Rock is a distinctive red and green.

Guard of the Council Great and General

The Guard of the Council Great and General, commonly known as The Guard of the Council or locally as the 'Guard of Nobles', formed in 1740, is a volunteer unit with ceremonial duties. Due to its striking blue, white, and gold uniform, it is perhaps the best-known part of the Sammarinese military, and appears on countless postcard views of the Republic. The functions of the Guard of the Council are to protect the Captains Regent, and to defend the Great and General Council during its formal sessions. They also provide a ceremonial bodyguard to government officials on festivals of both state and church.

The Company of Uniformed Militia

In former times, all families with two or more adult male members were required to enroll half of them in the Company of Uniformed Militia. This unit remains the basic fighting force of the armed forces of San Marino, but is largely ceremonial. It is a matter of civic pride for many Sammarinese to belong to the force, and all citizens with at least six years residence in the republic are entitled to enroll.

The uniform is dark blue, with a kepi bearing a blue and white plume. The ceremonial form of the uniform includes a white cross-strap, white and blue sash, white epaulets, and white decorated cuffs.

The Military Ensemble

Formally this is part of the Army Militia, and is the ceremonial military band of San Marino. It consists of approximately fifty musicians. The uniform is similar to that of the Army Militia. Military Ensemble music accompanies most state occasions in the Republic.

The Gendarmerie

Established in 1842, the Gendarmerie of San Marino is a militarised law enforcement agency. Its members are full-time and have responsibility for the protection of citizens and property, and the preservation of law and order.

The entire military corps of San Marino depends upon the co-operation of full-time forces and their retained (volunteer) colleagues, known as the Corpi Militari Volontari, or Voluntary Military Force.


Although San Marino is not a European Union member, it is allowed to use the euro as its currency by arrangement with the Council of the European Union.

It is also granted the right to use its own designs on the national side of the euro coins. Before the euro, the Sammarinese lira was pegged to, and exchangeable with, the Italian lira.

The small number of Sammarinese euro coins, as was the case with the lira before it, are primarily of interest to coin collectors.

Key industries include banking, electronics, and ceramics. The main agricultural products are wine and cheese.



There are no telephone providers in San Marino as the Italian system provides services. In 2002 there were 20,600 landlines in use, as well as 16,800 mobile phones.


San Marino has only one television network, San Marino RTV. In 1997, there were approximately 9,000 television sets in the country.


San Marino has two radio networks, Radio San Marino and Radio San Marino Classic, also owned by San Marino RTV. In 1997, there were approximately 16,000 radios in San Marino.


In 2010 there were 17,000 Internet users in San Marino. San Marino's internet domain is .sm.

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