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San Marino (Great Nuclear War)

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Republic of San Marino
Repubblica di San Marino
Timeline: Great Nuclear War
OTL equivalent: San Marino
Flag of San Marino.svg Coat of arms of San Marino.svg
Motto: 
"Libertas" (Liberty)
Anthem: 
Inno Nazionale della Repubblica (National Anthem of the Republic)
Map of San Marino (GNW)1.png
Location of San Marino (In Green)
CapitalCity of San Marino
Largest city Riccione and Rimini
Other cities Serravalle, Domagnano, Featano, Borgo Maggiore, Fiorentino, Chiesanuova, Cattolica and Acquaviva
Official languages Italian
Ethnic groups  Italians
Demonym Sammarinese
Government Unitary parliamentary directorial republic
 -  Captains Regent Antonio Maria Morganti Agostino Biordi
Legislature Grand and General Council
Establishment
 -  Independence form the Roman Empire 3 September 301 
Area
 -  Total 334.94 km2 
129 sq mi 
Population
 -  1965 estimate 332,576 
Currency Sammarinese Lira (£)
Time zone +1 (UTC+2)
Drives on the Right
Patron saint Saint Agatha

San Marino, officially the Republic of San Marino, and occasionally "The Most Serene Republic of San Marino", is a sovereign state in the North of the Italian Peninsula.

History

Saint Marinus left the island of Arba in present-day Croatia with his lifelong friend Leo, and went to the city of Rimini as a stonemason. After the Diocletianic Persecution following his Christian sermons, he escaped to the nearby Monte Titano, where he built a small church and founded what is now the city and state of San Marino, which is sometimes still called the "Titanic Republic". The official date of the founding of what is now known as the Republic is 3 September 301. In 1631, its independence was recognized by the Papacy.

Unification of Italy

During the later phase of the Italian unification process in the 19th century, San Marino served as a refuge for many people persecuted because of their support for unification. In recognition of this support, Giuseppe Garibaldi accepted the wish of San Marino not to be incorporated into the new Italian state. The government of San Marino made United States President Abraham Lincoln an honorary citizen. He wrote in reply, saying that the republic proved that "government founded on republican principles is capable of being so administered as to be secure and enduring."

Modern Times

During World War I, when Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary on 23 May 1915, San Marino remained neutral and Italy adopted a hostile view of Sammarinese neutrality, suspecting that San Marino could harbor Austrian spies who could be given access to its new radiotelegraph station. Italy tried to forcibly establish a detachment of Carabinieri in the republic and then cut the republic's telephone lines when it did not comply. Two groups of ten volunteers joined Italian forces in the fighting on the Italian front, the first as combatants and the second as a medical corps operating a Red Cross field hospital. The existence of this hospital later caused Austria-Hungary to suspend diplomatic relations with San Marino. From 1923 to 1943, San Marino was under the rule of the Sammarinese Fascist Party. The front passes Monte Titano in September 1944. During World War II, San Marino remained neutral, the Fascists regained power on 1 April 1944 but kept neutrality intact. Despite that, on 26 June 1944 San Marino was bombed by the Royal Air Force, in the belief that San Marino had been overrun by German forces and was being used to amass stores and ammunition. San Marino accepted thousands of civilian refugees when Allied forces went over the Gothic Line. In September 1944, it was briefly occupied by German forces, who were defeated by Allied forces in the Battle of San Marino. San Marino had the world's first democratically elected communist government, which held office between 1945 and 1957. 

Great Nuclear War 

San Marino was not a member of the NATO, and was not attacked by the Soviet Union or its allies. Despite the massive destruction of the Italian Countryside, San Marino was untouched by nuclear fire, though they received significant fallout coming from Rome and Iberia. The leaders of San Marino, Antonio Maria Morganti and Agostino Biordi both knew that it was their job to protect the people of San Marino. Although less than 20 people were killed, most of the surrounding livestock was killed by radiation. This would significantly affect the tiny city's food supplies. Crowds of people began to swarm the borders of San Marino, thus forcing the nation to close all borders until its militia could bring order to the areas around San Marino. Many people were initially prevented from entering the city, for some time. It was not until much later that the San Marino Government began to create a plan for the survivors outside of their nation. It was quickly decided that the refugees needed to be accommodated, and supplies acquired.

Coastal Annexation

In correspondence with the acquisition of supplies the San Marino Guard of the Rock and a few Italian militia men from the the outskirts of San Marino began to march to the city of Rimini, in hopes of acquiring a port and new farmland. The city was taken quickly with the help of the local police. From the Outskirts of Rimini the Rock of the Guard and Italian Militia men began to march to the city of Riccione, which had undergone much rioting. After two days fighting with unidentified local gangs, the city of Riccione was finally brought back to order. Soon food rations were given to the people, and order established. 

Knowledge of their neighbors 

After 5 years of stability and grown their own economy some San Marino Gendarmerie have encounter a pilot of the Italian Air Force who have crushed with his airplane, the pilot was made a recon mission over the province of Rimini for knowing what remain of that area and if was free for be annexed by the Italian Republic. After have contact the Italian Government at Turin with the help of the Venetians the pilot was send back at home, with the help of the Italians they have been at knowing of the Mob State in south Italy, of Sicily and of the other italians states. San Marino now have an ambassy in all the Italian states, exept for the Republic of the Holy United Crown, the two nations have rocky relations with the Mafia state.

Government

San Marino has the political framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic: the Captains Regent are both heads of state and heads of government, and there is a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. 

Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Grand and General Council. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The legislature of the republic is the Grand and General Council. The Council is a unicameral legislature with 60 members. There are elections every five years by proportional representation in all nine administrative districts. These districts correspond to the old parishes of the republic.

Every six months, the council elects two Captains Regent to be the heads of state. The Regents are chosen from opposing parties so that there is a balance of power. They serve a six-month term. The investiture of the Captains Regent takes place on 1 April and 1 October in every year. Once this term is over, citizens have three days in which to file complaints about the Captains' activities. If they warrant it, judicial proceedings against the ex-head(s) of state can be initiated.

Administrative divisions

San Marino is divided into the following nine municipalities, known locally as castelli (meaning "castles").

  • San Marino is the capital.

There are also eight minor municipalities:

  • Acquaviva
  • Borgo Maggiore
  • Chiesanuova
  • Domagnano
  • Faetano
  • Fiorentino
  • Montegiardino
  • Serravalle

Military

San Marino has one of the smallest military forces in the world. National defence is, by arrangement, the responsibility of Italy's armed forces. Different branches have varied functions, including : performing ceremonial duties; patrolling borders; mounting guard at government buildings; and assisting police in major criminal cases. The police are not included in the Military of San Marino.

Crossbow Corps

Once at the heart of San Marino's army, the Crossbow Corps is now a ceremonial force of approximately eighty volunteers. Since 1295, the Crossbow Corps has provided demonstrations of crossbow shooting at festivals. Its uniform is medieval in design. While still a statutory military unit, the Crossbow Corps has no military function today.

Guard of the Rock

The Guard of the Rock is a front-line military unit in the San Marino armed forces, a state border patrol, with responsibility for patrolling borders and defending them. In their role as Fortress Guards they are responsible for guarding the Palazzo Pubblico in San Marino City, the seat of national Government.

In this role they are the forces most visible to tourists, and are known for their colourful ceremony of Changing the Guard. Under the 1987 statute the Guard of the Rock are all enrolled as 'Criminal Police Officers' (in addition to their military role) and assist the police in investigating major crime. The uniform of the Guard of the Rock is a distinctive red and green.

Guard of the Council Great and General

The Guard of the Council Great and General commonly known as The Guard of the Council or locally as the 'Guard of Nobles', formed in 1740, is a volunteer unit with ceremonial duties. Due to its striking blue, white, and gold uniform, it is perhaps the best-known part of the Sammarinese military, and appears on countless postcard views of the republic. The functions of the Guard of the Council are to protect the Captains Regent, and to defend the Great and General Council during its formal sessions. They also provide a ceremonial bodyguard to government officials on festivals of both state and church.

The Company of Uniformed Militia

In former times, all families with two or more adult male members were required to enroll half of them in the Company of Uniformed Militia. This unit remains the basic fighting force of the armed forces of San Marino, but is largely ceremonial. It is a matter of civic pride for many Sammarinese to belong to the force, and all citizens with at least six years residence in the republic are entitled to enroll.

The uniform is dark blue, with a kepi bearing a blue and white plume. The ceremonial form of the uniform includes a white cross-strap, and white and blue sash, white epaulets, and white decorated cuffs.

The Military Ensemble

Formally this is part of the Army Militia, and is the ceremonial military band of San Marino. It consists of approximately fifty musicians. The uniform is similar to that of the Army Militia. Military Ensemble music accompanies most state occasions in the republic.

The Gendarmerie

Established in 1842, the Gendarmerie of San Marino is a militarised law enforcement agency. Its members are full-time and have responsibility for the protection of citizens and property, and the preservation of law and order.

The entire military corps of San Marino depends upon the co-operation of full-time forces and their retained (volunteer) colleagues, known as the Corpi Militari Volontari, or Voluntary Military Force.

Economy

The Sammarinese lira is pegged to, and exchangeable with, the Italian lira.

Key industries include banking, agricolture, electronics, and ceramics. The main agricultural products are wine and cheese, industries which are still recovering from fallout.


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