San Marino is a small nation situated in the Northern Apennine Mountains and the former Commune of Rimini. It is an enclave between the lawless landmass that was once controlled by Italy. It boasts the fourth highest democratic economy in all of South Europe. Since 1983, its borders have grown, although it remains a micro-nation in many ways.
According to tradition, Saint Marinus left the island of Rab in Croatia with his lifelong friend, Leo, and went to the city of Rimini as a mason. After the Diocletianic Persecution following his Christian sermons, he escaped to the nearby Monte Titano, where he built a small church and thus founded what is now the city and the state of San Marino. The official date of foundation of the Republic is September 3rd, 301.
By the mid-fifth century, a community was formed; because of its relatively inaccessible location and its poverty, it has succeeded, with a few brief interruptions, in maintaining its independence. In 1631, its independence was recognized by the Papacy.
San Marino was a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, so it was not attacked by the Soviet Union or its allies.
Meanwhile, Italy was being blown away by Soviet missiles, San Marino was not attacked by the USSR. The leaders of San Marino, Germano De Biagi and Renzo Renzi both knew that it was their job to help the people of Italy. They also received significant fallout coming from the Balkans and Italy. Although less than 30 people were killed, most of the surrounding livestock were killed by radiation. This would significantly affect the tiny city's food supplies.
Crowds of people began to swarm the borders of San Marino, thus forcing the nation to close all borders until its militia could bring back order to the areas around San Marino.
While many people were initially prevented from entering the city, the San Marinan Government began to build up a plan for the survivors outside of their nation. The first plan was to bring basic needs (food, water, shelter) to the areas around the border. Second was to meet with the coastal cities of Rimini, Riccione and Pesaro, in order to negotiate exchange of supplies. The San Marino Guard of the Rock and a few Italian militia men from the the outskirts of San Marino began to march to the city of Riccione. which had undergone the most chaos from the three main cities. After two days fighting with unidentified local gangs, the city of Riccione was finally brought back to order. Soon food rations were given to the people. The Military left on the fifth day, in which they took the city of Rimini which had the largest population of the three cities, and which had not undergone so much chaos as the other cities, as the Local police were able to keep control. Pesaro was taken by the units of the San Marino Military that split off from Riccione, the city was taken quickly with the help of the local police. The three cities went under the flag of San Marino on June 7th, 1985.
When Sicily advanced north, rather than fight the Sicilians, San Marino proposed a deal in which San Marino could "lease" the three cities from Sicily and would have to pay tariffs on any goods leaving the ports. Sicily would also have free passage through San Marino's territory but could not have a permanent military presence. Seeing the wisdom in the arrangement in which Sicily would be monetarily compensated and not have to spend the resources on both conquering, occupying, or administering the area, the Sicilians agreed.
This, however, did not stop the San Marinians from joining the Italian Peninsula Alliance in January of 2010, and along with the other members, they attacked Sicily that February. They ended up gaining territory as a result.
The politics of San Marino take place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Captains Regent are the heads of state, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Grand and General Council. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The legislature of the republic is the Grand and General Council (Consiglio grande e generale). The Council is a unicameral legislature which has seventy members, with elections occurring every five years under a proportional representation system in all ten administrative districts
Citizens eighteen years or older are eligible to vote. Beside general legislation, the Grand and General Council approves the budget and elects the Captains Regent, the State Congress (composed of ten Secretaries with executive power), the Council of Twelve (which forms the judicial branch during the period of legislature of the Council), the Advising Commissions, and the Government Unions. The Council also has the power to ratify treaties with other countries. The Council is divided into five different Advising Commissions consisting of fifteen councilors who examine, propose and discuss the implementation of new laws that are on their way to being presented on the floor of the Council.Every six months, the Council elects two Captains Regent to be the heads of state. The Regents are chosen from opposing parties so there is a balance of power. They serve a six-month term. The investiture of the Captains Regent takes place on 1 April and 1 October in every year. Once this term is over, citizens have three days in which to file complaints about the Captains' activities. If they warrant it, judicial proceedings against the ex-head(s) of state can be initiated.
The practice of multiple heads of state, as well as the frequent re-election of the heads of state, are derived directly from the customs of the Roman Republic. The Council is equivalent to the Roman Senate; the Captains Regent, to the consuls of ancient Rome.
Its current Captains Regent are Aleandro di Bartoccino snd Antonio Esposito
While San Marino's military is not very strong, it does indeed keep the people safe, it has also grown after the past few years. A list of commanders is listed below.
The Crossbow Corps
Although once at the heart of San Marino's army, the Crossbow Corps is now an entirely ceremonial force of about 200 volunteer soldiers. The Crossbow Corps has a continuous history from its first mention in the national statutes of 1295. It continues to provide demonstrations of crossbow shooting at festivals. Its uniform is medieval in design, and although it is a statutory military unit, it has no actual military function today.
The Guard of the Rock
The Guard of the Rock is a front-line military unit in the San Marino armed forces. Its precise origin is difficult to pinpoint due to amalgamations. Its role was last redefined by statute in 1987, and it probably came into being as a military branch in 1754; however, the unit also uses the name "Fortress Guards" which may be traced back to much earlier units of Sammarinese military. The Guard of the Rock are the state border patrol, with responsibility for patrolling borders and defending them. In their role as Fortress Guards they are also responsible for the guarding of the Palazzo Pubblico in San Marino City, which is the seat of national Government. In this role they are the forces most visible to tourists, and known for their colorful ceremony of Changing the Guard. Under the 1987 statute the Guard of the Rock are all enrolled as 'Criminal Police Officers' (in addition to their military role) and act to assist the police in investigating major crime.
The uniform of the Guard of the Rock is distinctively red and green, with three dress standards. The ceremonial uniform (1) for festivals includes red trousers with a green stripe (two thinner gold stripes for officers), a double breasted green jacket (with red and white lanyard, red cuffs and collars, gold buttons, and red and white dress epaulets (for officers the epaulets are gold, and there is a gold edge to the red cuffs)), a black leather belt, and a black helmet decorated with red and white feathers. For normal guard duties (2) the uniform is similar to that described above, but with plain green epaulets, and a simple black kepi with a single red feather plume in place of the helmet. For routine patrol duties (3) on the border the uniform is simple and modern, with red trousers, green bomber-jacket, and a green peaked hat. For ceremonial duties the Guard of the Rock carry rifles, always displayed with fixed bayonets. For patrol duties they are armed with modern pistols, and they patrol in green and white patrol cars.
The Guard of the Council
Its full name is 'The Guard of the Council Great and General' and it is also known locally as the 'Guard of Nobles'. This unit, formed in 1740, is composed almost entirely of volunteers, and its duties are largely ceremonial. Due to its striking uniform, it is arguably the best-known part of the Sammarinese military, and appears on countless postcard views of the republic. The functions of the Guard of the Council are to protect the Captains Regent, and to defend the Great and General Council during its formal sessions. They also provide a ceremonial bodyguard to government officials on festivals of both state and church.
The distinctive dress uniform (1) includes dark blue trousers and double-breasted tailed jacket, with gold colored ornaments including: double stripe on trouser legs, dress epaulets, cuffs, collars, and jacket tail edges. This uniform also includes white gloves, a white leather cross-strap, and a cocked hat decorated with blue and white feathers. For ceremonial duties this force carries sabers, rather than firearms. The non-dress uniform (2) employs the same color scheme, but less decoration.
The Army Militia
All families with two or more adult male members are required to enroll half of them in the Army Militia. This unit remains the basic fighting force of the armed forces of San Marino, but is largely ceremonial. It is a matter of civic pride for many Sammarinese to belong to the force, and all citizens with at least six years residence in the republic are entitled to enroll.
The uniform is dark blue, with a kepi bearing a blue and white plume. The ceremonial form of the uniform includes a white cross-strap, and white and blue sash, white epaulets, and white decorated cuffs.
San Marino's economy is controlled by livestock, wine making, farming and the communications industry. Surprisingly, it has established relations with many other former micro-states such as Monaco and Luxembourg, and being close to the Alpine Confederation, who has since absorbed Liechtenstein. It has become a haven from those fleeing the interior of Italy, which has had a small effect on the countries unemployment. To say, it is an export driven economy, and relies on most of its' food from Tuscany, Genoa, and Venice.
San Marino is a peaceful nation, it is currently establishing embassies Tuscany and Venice. Although San Marino is its own nation, with Sicily being a major power in the area, San Marino has political ties with the Sicily Republic, in which the San Marino government had listen too strongly, until the signing of the Italian Peninsula Alliance which has caused the Sicily Republic Embassy to leave, and close all borders to San Marino, close calls to war have been repeating over and over again.
San Marino is a member state in the League of Nations.
It is not a member of the Atlantic Defense Community, although it remains good relations with all of its members.
San Marino is part of the Italian Peninsula Alliance, involvement in which led to their military, backed by Venice and northern volunteers, advancing against Sicily, and expanding the Republic somewhat.