During the wake of the eighteenth century, two large Islamic empires battled for superiority in the Middle East.
The Ottomans, fresh from glorious victories in Europe and eager for more, against the millennia-old Persian Empire during the Safavid dynasty. Both countries were old, experienced, powerful, and looking for expansion at the other's expense.
The first battle happened on January 3, 1705. Ottoman galleys landed on Bahrain and instigated a rebellion. The rebellion against the Safavids on the small island was operated by the powerful and charismatic Al Khalifa family. Ottoman troops flowed into Qatar from the west and met up with the Al Khalifa controlled northern half. The war had begun.
Persian swordsman are slightly less than equal to Ottoman jannisaries. But in the close terrain of the Iranian plateau, close range is better. Ottomans were better skilled at sea, where their fleet of galleys outmatches anything thrown at them. New tactics and strategies are learned by the Turks during the war. Warships bombard coastal towns that can put up the most resistance, and then fast Spahis swoop in and are flanked by powerful Janissaries.
By the time the war is over in 1715, the Turks have taken much land. Most of southern Persia west of the 60th longitude is Turkish. Mt. Damavand and the Salt Desert make up much of the border. Bahrain and Qatar are absorbed as well. This famous war is the beginning of a long era of Turkish expansion.