|Sabor of Silesia |
|40th Sabor of Silesia|
|Ban||Franciszek Wikóz, Republican |
|Sabor Political groups|
Great Hall of the Sabor
The Sabor of Silesia (Silesian: Ślůnske Sabor) is the unicameral legislative body of the Silesian Voivodeship. Led by the Ban, the Sabor controls the domestic budget of the nation and generally sets domestic policy.
The 150 members are elected by district every five years. After this election, the members assemble in Wrocłow to elect the Ban. The Ban is then sworn into office by the Voivode, and then he swears in all other members.
The Sabor meets every year during the months of May through September, and can also be convened in special circumstances as designated by the Voivode or at the death of a voivode.
The first predecessor to the modern-day Sabor was the Saborčic, a parliamentary institution established by the Croatians after they took over Silesia and Czechia in 1694. This legislature and its Ban acted mostly to add legitimacy to the decisions made by the Croatian central government at first, but it eventually evolved to have a great deal of control by 1760.
The first election to the Saborčic took place in 1695 and saw a number of local nobles elected to power. These men would solidify their support behind Bożydar Paszek, who became the first Ban of Silesia. Paszek organized the Conservative Party, but then defected to the fledgling Liberal Party in the 1700 elections.
Under a new Ban, Radek Doubrava, the Conservatives maintained control over the Saborčic until 1720. At this point, the pro-independence Silesian National Party had developed under Oldřich Piatek. The Nationals would govern throughout the 1720s, but then power was returned to the Conservatives.The Conservatives led the Saborčic for 15 of the next 20 years (interrupted from 1740-1745 by the first Liberal Ban, Korneliusz Havel) before a nationalist surge, which had been sponsored by Croatia, saw 20 years of continued National leadership. Led by Józef Zabek, a duke from Raćibůrz, Silesia's Saborčic declared independence in 1767.
The National aim accomplished, the Silesian National Party largely disintegrated until 1795. In the meanwhile, the Conservatives and Liberals grew to dominate the Sabor in a two-party fight.
After Ban Fabian Klimy instituted a series of electoral reforms in the early 1830s, the 1835 election was the first in which party membership was indicated on ballots. Soon thereafter, party organizations solidified outside of the Sabor and significant national campaigning by party leaders began.
The Sabor elections of 1885 saw a thorough repudiation of ... CONSERVATIVES BASHED
The Sabor elections of 1890 saw a reduction in support for the Liberal Party under Ban Iwan Pilarska. The new minority government that resulted relied upon a coalition that included the Republicans to furnish the necessary 76 votes to pass any policies.
This set of elections also was notable due to the election of seven members of the Communist Party, the first time that had ever taken place. These seven representatives came from urban areas of Silesia and were all denied their membership throughout 1890 and 1891 due to the Communist Invasion.
In the months leading up to the 1895 Sabor election, a vigorous debate took place over the ability of the Communist Party to contest seats. Ban Iwan Pilarska, as a Liberal ideologue, felt that the people should choose representatives regardless of partisan affiliation, but Voivode Patryk Waldau (another individual of the liberal persuasion) disagreed.
In a vote in late 1894, it was decided that Communists could not contest this election; the Republicans under Franciszek Wikóz and many Liberals defected from the coalition to give the majority to a Conservative-backed piece of legislation to ban the Communists from participating in elections.
In the following election, the Republicans gained a major surge in support but still remained distantly removed from the top spot. In the election for Ban, the Conservative leader secured 75 votes (including Ban Iwan Pilarska) and Republican leader Wikóz also gained 75 votes (from his party and all but one of the Liberal Party). Called to break the tie, Voivode Waldau supported the Republican candidate and Franciszek Wikóz was elected as the first ever non-plurality Ban.
After five years of minority government and relying on a shaky coalition with the Liberals, the Republican Party under Franciszek Wikóz faced its first election in 1900. The national situation going into this election ended up setting the needed conditions for a large-scale Republican victory.
First, in 1896 the Republicans took the lead in granting voting rights to women. This support led many women to vote Republican in the 1900 Sabor elections. Secondly, massive efforts were undertaken to ensure all Silesians - including the poor and manual laborers - were able to vote in this election. The previously disenfranchised classes were typically sympathetic to Republican causes and their relatively radical platform. Finally, the Communist Party was once again banned leading many (including the Transitional Communist wing of that party) to join the Republican Party and vote for them.
The result of this election was confirmation of the radical liberal and progressive policies of Franciszek Wikóz by the electorate. The Liberals were the biggest loser in this election and faced a leadership coup in which they decided to move more centrist.