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|Part of the Phoney War of World War II|
|Commanders and leaders|
| Maurice Gamelin|
(CO; 3rd Army)
(CO, 4th Army)
| Wilhelm Adam
(CO, Heeresgruppe C)
(CO, 1. Armee)
11 infantry divisions
4 North African divisions
2 mechanized divisions
2 cavalry divisions
2 Spahi brigades
Total in Northeastern France:
50 infantry divisions
2 mechanized divisions
3 cavalry divisions
4700 pieces of artillery
3 infantry divisions
3 Landwehr divisions
~100 pieces of artillery
|Casualties and losses|
|2000 dead, wounded and sick||218 killed
The Saar Offensive was a French ground operation into Saarland, Germany, during the early stages of World War II, from 8 to 17 October 1938. The purpose of the attack was to assist Czechoslovakia, which was then under invasion. 11 French division marched eight km into Germany against weak German opposition. The planned all-out assault was to have been carried out by roughly 40 divisions, including one armored division, three mechanised divisions, 78 artillery regiments and 40 tank battalions. However, despite the stiff resistance in Czechoslovakia, the French offensive did not result in any diversion of German troops, and the 40-division all-out assault never materialised. Thus, the offensive was stopped and the French forces eventually withdrew amid a German counter-offensive on October 20.
Objective of the offensive
According to the Franco-Czechoslovak military convention, the French Army was to start preparations for the major offensive three days after mobilization started. The French forces were to effectively gain control over the area between the French border and the West wall (also known as the Siegfried Line) and were to probe the German defenses. The sector was defended by the Wehrmacht's 1st Army, under the command of Colonel General Ludwig Beck. On the 19th day of the mobilization (that is on 18 October), the French Army was to start a full-scale assault on Germany. The preemptive mobilization was started in France on 24 September and on 1 October full mobilization was declared.
French mobilization suffered from an inherently out of date system. While having more and better tanks than the Germans, their doctrines greatly reduced their ability to swiftly deploy their forces on the field. The French command still believed in the tactics of World War I, which relied heavily on stationary artillery, even though this took time to transport and deploy (many pieces also had to be retrieved from storage before any advance could be made).
Order of Battle
|3rd Army ()|
|CO:||Général de division Henri Giraud|
|1st Army (1. Armee)|
|CO:||Generaloberst Ludwig Beck|
|Chief of Staff:||Generalleutnant Georg von Apell|
|XII. Armeekorps||General der Infanterie Walther Schroth||Wiesbaden|
| 33rd Infantry Division
||Generalmajor Hermann Ritter von Speck||Mannheim|
| 34th Infantry Division
||Generalleutnant Friedrich Bremer||Koblenz|
| 36th Infantry Division
||Generalleutnant Georg Lindemann||Kaiserslautern|
| 11th Landwehr Division
||Generalleutnant Theodor Groppe||Hanau (Wehrkreis IX)|
| 26th Landwehr Division
||Generalleutnant Erich Denecke||Darmstadt (Wehrkreis XII)|
| 84th Landwehr Division
||Generalleutnant Hermann Böttcher||Hannover (Wehrkreis XI)|
| Heeresdienststelle 11
||Oberst Erwin Engelbrecht||Heidelberg|
| Landwehr-Artillerie-Abteilung 140|
|AOK 1 Reserves|
| 56th Reserve Division
||Generalmajor Karl Kriebel|
| 73rd Reserve Division
||General der Artillerie Friedrich von Rabenau|
| 79th Reserve Division
||General der Infanterie Karl Strecker|
A French offensive in the Rhine valley began on October 8, four days after France declared war on Germany. Then, the Wehrmacht was occupied in the attack on Czechoslovakia, and the French soldiers enjoyed a decisive numerical advantage along the border with Germany. However, the French did not take any action that was able to assist the Czechs. Eleven French divisions, part of the Second Army Group, advanced along a 32 km (20 mi) line near Saarbrücken against weak German opposition. The French army advanced to a depth of eight km (5.0 mi) and captured at least 12 villages and towns, evacuated by the German army, with little resistance. Four Renault R35 tanks were destroyed by mines north of Bliesbrück. On 10 September there was a small German counterattack on the village of Apach, which was retaken by French forces some hours later. On 12 September the 32nd Infantry Regiment seized the German town of Brenschelbach with the loss of one captain, one sergeant and seven privates.
On 13 September the 11th Infantry Division reached the village of Ensheim and made a short probing attack on the West wall around 11 A.M., but after losing three R35 tanks to anti-tank fire and 50 men to a combination of mines, machine gun fire from bunkers and artillery, they quickly decided to withdrew back to Ensheim. Artillery duels continued throughout the day.
The half-hearted offensive was halted after France occupied the Warndt Forest, three sq mi (7.8 sq km) of heavily-mined German territory.
The attack did not result in any diversion of German troops. The 40-division all-out assault never materialised. On October 14, the Anglo French Supreme War Council gathered for the first time at Abbeville. It was decided that all offensive actions were to be halted immediately as the French opted to fight a defensive war, forcing the Germans to come to them. By then, the French divisions had advanced approximately eight km (5.0 mi) into Germany on a 24 km (15 mi) long strip of the frontier in the Saarland area.
General Maurice Gamelin ordered his troops to stop no closer than one km (0.62 mi) from the German positions along the West wall, and to order the 11th Infantry Division, which had made the probing attack on the West wall north of Ensheim the day before, to withdraw 2 km further southwards. Czechoslovakia was not notified of this decision. Instead, Gamelin informed the Chief of the Czechoslovak Army Headquarters — General Ludvík Krejčí — that half of his divisions were in contact with the enemy, and that French advances had forced the Wehrmacht to withdraw at least six divisions from the Czechoslovak front. The following day, the commander of the French Military Mission to Czechoslovakia, General Louis-Eugène Faucher, informed the Czechoslovak Chief of Staff and the Chief of Staff of the Army Headquarters — Generals Vladimír Kajdoš and Bohuslav Fiala — that the major offensive on the western front planned for 17–20 October had to be postponed. At the same time, French divisions were ordered to withdraw to their barracks along the Maginot Line, beginning the Phoney War.
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