The Federal Republic of Russland (High Russian: Федеративная Республика Россия/Federativnaya Respublika Rossiya) is a sovereign state located in eastern Europe. It is the largest state in Europe, being almost twice as big as Lithuania, and is also the poorest having a GDP per capita of just R$7,926. Russland was once part of the Lithuanian-Polish-Russian Commonwealth and still shows signs of Lithuanian cultural influence to this day.
Russland has its origins with the Republic of Novgorod, a successor state to Kievan Rus' with its capital at Novgorod. After the fall of Kiev to the Mongol invasions, a number of independent city-states and principalities arose, including Novgorod, Moscow, Ryazan, Vladimir-Suzdal, Kiev and Galicia-Volhynia. In 1413 Novgorod formed an alliance with Lithuania and Poland to defend against Muscovite aggression, enabling it to destroy Moscow and restore its dominance among the northern Russian states.
In 1420 King Vytautas II of Lithuania and Poland was elected Prince of Novgorod, and his insistence on hereditary succession transformed Novgorod into a constitutional monarchy. In 1569 Novgorod, Lithuania and Poland were formally united into one state by the Union of Riga, forming the Lithuanian-Polish-Russian Commonwealth.
From then until independence, see the history of the Commonwealth.