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Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика
Flag of Russian SFSR (1937-1954).svg Emblem of the Russian SFSR.svg
MottoWorkers of the World, Unite!
AnthemThe Internationale
Languages Russian, German, Ukrainian, Georgian, and others
Ethnic groups  Russians, Germans, Cossacks, Belarussians, Uzbeks, Kazakhs, etc.
Demonym Soviet
Government Communist (Bolshevik)
 •  Chairman Vladimir Lenin
EstablishmentNovember 7, 1917
 •   census 143,000,000 
Currency Ruble

The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian: Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика, tr. Rossiyskaya Sovetskaya Federativnaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), commonly referred to as Soviet Russia, the Russian Federation, or simply Russia, was a sovereign state (in 1917–19). 

The RSFSR was established on November 7, 1917 (October Revolution) as a sovereign state. The first Constitution was adopted in 1918. 


Under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin, the Bolsheviks established the Soviet state on November 7, 1917, immediately after the Russian Provisional Government, which governed the Russian Republic, was overthrown during the October Revolution. Initially, the state did not have an official name and wasn't recognized by neighboring countries for five months. Meanwhile, anti-Bolsheviks coined the mocking label "Sovdepia" for the nascent state of the "Soviets of Workers' and Peasants' Deputies".

On January 25, 1918 the third meeting of the All-Russian Congress of Soviets renamed the unrecognized state the Soviet Russian Republic. The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was signed on March 3, 1918, giving away much of the land of the former Russian Empire to Germany in exchange for peace during the rest of World War I. On July 10, 1918, the Russian Constitution of 1918 renamed the country the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic. By 1918, during the Russian Civil War, several states within the former Russian Empire seceded, reducing the size of the country even more.



Vladimir Lenin.

The Russian Provisional Government was formed in response to the Russian Empire's collapse in the February Revolution. The new state sought to continue Russian participation in the Great War, a conflict increasingly unpopular among the populace. Grasping for victory in the east, Germany shipped Lenin to Petrograd, where he promised to get the nation out of the conflict in exchange for putting him in power.

The Bolshevik regime first came to power on November 7, 1917, immediately after the Russian Provisional Government, which governed the Russian Republic, was overthrown in the October Revolution. The state it governed, which did not have an official name, would be unrecognized by neighboring countries for another five months.

Private property was abolished and the remaining nobility in the country were systematically hunted down as enemies of the state. Religion, seen by the Party as illogical, was outlawed.

Civil War

The putsch against the Provisional Government was followed by the Russian Civil War.

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