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The Russian Federative Socialist Republic (Russian FSR, Росси́йская Федерати́вная Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика / Rossiyskaya Federativnaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika) is an Eastern European country, member of the Federation of Socialist Republics. It borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Transcaucasia, Turkestan, China, Mongolia and Korea.
The Russian FSR signed in March 1923 the Treaty of Federation with the Transcaucasian FSR, SR of Ukrainian and SR of Belorussian establishing the Federation of Socialist Republics. It is also one of the founding members of the International Community of Socialist States in 1935.
The first socialist state of the World was established in October 1918, after the overthrown of the Provisional Government by the Bolsheviks. It become and has such it tried to spread its revolution to Poland and Germany. The Bolsheviks and allies secured their existence the after the Civil War (1918-1920) when they defeat the White Forces. However, the advancement of the Revolution to the East was stopped by the Battle of Warsaw. In August 1921 a truce was signed. The Bolsheviks promoted and helped the Revolutionary committees (revkoms) that established friendly states in the Caucasus, Belarus, Latvia, Ukraine. A complete failure where the revkoms for Poland, Lithuania, Estonia and Finland.
According to the Constitution of 1924, (replacing the one of 1920) Russia is a federal socialist republic. It establishes the dictatorship of the proletariat, where all political, economical and social power belongs to the working people through their elected representatives, referenda and people's initiative. All adults 18 years and older have full political rights. Between 1920-1925 suffrage and election to public office was denied to the nobles, bourgeoisies, capitalists, members of the clergy, employees and agents of the former police, the gendarme corps, and the Okhrana, also members of the former reigning dynasty or those who supported or were members the White armies in the Civil War.
Organization of Public Powers
- the supreme organ of power is the All-Russian Congress of Soviets (VS-Soviet). It is the highest legislative, administrative, and revising body of Russian FSR. The deputies are directly elected every 5 years. The Constitution of 1925 established a bicameral VS-Soviet composed of: Congress of the Republic, from territorial constituencies, taking into account the number of voters in the region, and a Council of Nationalities from administrative divisions (oblast, cities, ASR, AO, AOg, ND and NT). The VS-Soviet elects the All-Russian Central Executive Committee (VTsIK), the Council of People's Commissars (Sovnarkom), the Supreme Court of Russian FSR and the Prosecutor General
- The executive power resides in the All-Russian Central Executive Committee (VTsIK), that functions as a collective head of state. It gives the general direction for the policies of the Workers-Peasant government and all bodies of the in the country. It unites and coordinates activities for legislation and administration as well as supervises the endorsement of the Soviet Constitution, declarations of the All-Russian Congress of Soviets and central bodies. It is integrated by a Chairman and three vice chairmen and 12 other members.
- The Council of People's Commissars (Sovnarkom) carries out all the executive and administrative functions of the Russian FSR. The VTsIK and Sovnarkom are responsible before the All-Russian Congress of Soviets. After 1925, federal delegates also integrate the Council of People's Commissar;
- the judiciary is in charge of the Supreme Court and the Prosecutor General
In 1925 a major revision was made resulting in the federalized constitution of the same year.
- The Russian Federative Socialist Republic is a socialist state of workers and peasants. All power resides in the working people of Russian by means of the dictatorship of the proletariat (Article I, Constitution of 1924).
Since the Russian Revolution, the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik) is the dominant and hegemonic political force. Banned are all former liberal and conservative political parties including those that opposed or fought during the Civil War against the Bolsheviks. The latter include social revolutionaries and anarchist. Also are outlawed nationalist parties. In 1928 where allowed legal existence has political associations, the Mensheviks and other socialist parties.
Although elections are free, the Bolshevik usually run unopposed in rural and urban areas and autonomous territories. The political associations only present candidates in urban or rural areas where they have strong support or political organization, and in the elections of trade unions and other social organizations.
The administrative division of the Russian FSR is highly complex. The Proclamation of the Rights of the Peoples of Russian, decreed by the Sovnarkom gave extensive autonomy and self rule to all ethnic and linguistics of the former Russian Empire. Also the mandate of the All-Russian Congress of Soviets to establish a federal socialist republic on the basis of a free union of the peoples of Russia. This established several territorial units with diverse autonomy.
The administrative division distinguishes:
- Non-autonomous territories. It is the basic organization of the Russian FSR. At the first level are oblasts (or krai in Northern Russia). These are subdivided into raion (or rayon). The raion have has component units, and organized hierarchically according to their administrative powers; Cities, Urban-type settlement and rural-type settlements. At each its inhabitants elected a Council, who designates an Administrative Council.
- Autonomous territories. These are territories and ethnic groups that have internal autonomy. They are organized in autonomous socialist republics, autonomous oblast, and autonomous okrug. Below this levels there exists also national districts (population 10,000-50,000) and national townships (population 500-5,000).
|1||n/a||Autonomous socialist republics (ASR)||ASR subordinated to central government|
|2||Oblast (or Krai, in Eastern Russia)||Autonomous oblast (AO)||AO subordinated to central government|
|3||Raion||Autonomous okrug (AOk)||AOk subordinated to an Oblast or ASR|
|4||City||Autonomous okrug (AOk)||AOk subordinated to an Oblast or ASR|
|5||Urban-type settlement / Rural-type settlements||National district / National townships||ND and NT subordinated to an Oblast|
More details in administrative divisions of Russian FSR.