The Empire of All the Russias was established November 2nd, 1721 when Peter I was crowned as Emperor, abandoning his title of Tsar of Muscovy. His new title was recognized by the rulers of Prussia, Scandinavia, and Polonia. Other European kingdoms, feeling that his new title of Emperor was presumptive, feared that he would claim suzerainty over them.
Nicholas II abdicated in 1917 in favor of his brother, Michael II, who then abdicated a day later in favor of Grand Duke Cyril, Czar Nicholas's first cousin and the current Russian Emperor, who is currently 62 years of age. The current Tsarevitch is His Imperial Highness Prince Vladimir, who is 21 years of age.
Russia is considered to be one of the more powerful industrial nations, and is the largest petroleum producer in the world.
The Russian Army and Airfleet attempted to annex Mongolia and Manchuria in 1916. The best-known battle of The Russo-Chinese War, as it was called, the Battle of Urga, was between forces led by Roman von Ungern-Sternberg and Li Yuan-hong.
The Russo-Chinese War
After initial victories in Mongolia and decisive defeats in Manchuria (due to the refusal of the Manchus to allow their homeland to be annexed), an armistice was signed between the Russian and Chinese commanders in Manchuria, allowing the bulk of the Russian effort to be concentrated in Mongolia. The Russians came within sight of Urga (OTL Ulaanbaatar) before being driven back by Mongol and Manchu cavalry and Chinese infantry under Li Yuan-hong. While the Russians fought to keep the numerically-superior Chinese forces from over-running the artillery, the artillery fired shrapnel and high-explosive rounds prior to retreating. The battle lasted 3 days with combined casualties estimated in the ten thousands.
After the Russians were driven from Darhan in Mongolia a peace treaty ending the war was signed, returning the borders to the status quo ante bellum and allowing a month for the withdrawal of Russian forces.