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Russian Civil War
Eastern Front (World War I) Clockwise from top right: German-equipped Livonian troops: the battleship Slava, destroyed by a German squadron: Republican troops assembling: Ukrainian soldiers: Imperial artillery.
Date 1900-1903
Location Former Russian Empire
Result Nationalist and Republican Victory; Vienna Conference
(Treaty of Schönbrunn)
Nationalist and Pro-Independence Movements Including:

Pro-German Forces:

  • Flag of Finland Finland
  • Inkerin lippu North Ingria
  • KarelianNationalFlag Karelia
  • United Baltic Duchy flag Livonia
  • Flag of Estonia Estonia

Supported by:

Flag of the German Empire Germany

Pro-British Forces:

Supported by:

Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom

Pro-French Forces:

  • Flag of Poland Poland
  • Flag of Romania Romania

Supported by:

Flag of France France

Pro-Japanese Forces:

  • Flag of Green Ukraine Transcathay

Supported by:

Flag of Japan Japan

Other Nationalist Forces:

  • Flag of Belarus (1918, 1991-1995) Belarus
  • Flag of the Moldavian Democratic Republic Moldavia
  • Flag of Idel-Ural State Idel-Ural Republic
  • Flag of Don Cossacks Don Republic
  • Flag of Lithuania 1918-1940 Lithuania
  • Bandera del Turquestan Basmachi
  • Flag of the Emirate of Bukhara Bukhara
  • Bandera de Khiva 1917-1920 Khiva

Many of these movements fought amongst each other.

Flag of Russia Russian Republic

Red flag Petrograd Soviet and other moderate socialist groups

Anti-Republican Forces Including:

Flag of Russia Russian Empire

Red flag Bolsheviks and other extremist socialist groups
RPAU flag Anarchists

Darker green and Black flag Green Armies All of these also fought each other.

The Russian Civil War was a major conflict in the aftermath of World War One . It began as an uprising against the oppressive Czarist regime, but escalated as the various revolutionary factions turned against each other and many ethnic groups, backed by the victors of World War One, attempted to gain independence or expand their territory at Russia's expense. During the ensuing chaos, Tsar Michael II managed to flee to Sweden. Despite severe disorganization the republicans and moderate socialists managed to defeat the other political factions and even some of the nationalist armies. In the west and Caucasus, however, the nationalists crushed the republicans thanks to their western aid. The republican armies teetered on complete collapse, but the nationalist armies started fighting among themselves. Fearing that they would drag their benefactors into war, Emperor Franz Ferdinand of the United States of Greater Austria called an international conference in Vienna to determine a new shape for eastern Europe. Russia remained a fragile republic, but the nationalist scored an immense triumph: Ukraine, the Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus (MRNC), Estonia (as a Russian vassal), Livonia (as a German vassal), and North Ingria (as a Finnish vassal) gained independence, while Poland, Romania, Germany, and Finland gained territory.

TRBEurope 1908

Europe in 1908, after the Civil War's conclusion and the Vienna Conference

TRBEurope 1908-Flags-Merged