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Russia (Russian: Россия, Rossiya), formally known as the Russian Federation (Российская Федерация, Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a sovereign state located across northern Eurasia. At over 17 million square kilometers in area (one-eighth of the world's land), Russia is the largest nation on Earth.
Prior to the 20th Century, the Russian Empire stretched from Europe, across Asia, and into North America. The Russian Empire collapsed in November 1917, as revolution broke out across Russia. The Soviet Union was proclaimed in 1922, which was a unified government of several Communist states. The USSR emerged as one of the two global superpowers following World War II, a period known as the Cold War. Communism ultimately collapsed in the late 1980s, followed by the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. The contemporary Russian Federation emerged as the successor state to the former Soviet Union.
The 1990s would be a turbulent decade for the newly established Russian Federation. The presidency of Boris Yeltsin ended with a military-backed coup in 1993. The appointed president, Alexander Rutskoy, pushed for a new constitution based on parliamentary principles. The new Russian government also moved to reunite much of its former territories. While Belarusians were willing to rejoin Russia, other territories were during the civil wars in Georgia and Ukraine. By the turn of the century, Russia would begin to reemerge as a global power.