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senatvs popvlvsqve romanvs (SPQR) "The Senate and People of Rome"
After Rome is barely spared by being sacked and the threat of civil war rises, the SPQR orders the Roman military to abandon all unnecessary stations and help control the national order, which is quickly restored as rebels are put to death and the economy takes a turn for the better. If Rome had not fallen, only gone through some tough times and then rebuilt, this is what Earth's altered history would have likely looked like.
One hundred years after the rough patch, the British islands are conquered, and Rome has a firm grasp on the known world, relations excel between Rome and China as technology and military tactics are shared.
Rome helps pioneer gunpowder and finishes off the last of the Germanic tribes with the gunpowder's help. Twenty-five years later a war breaks out between Rome and China. The war lasts fifteen years and China nearly wins, but Rome now has an unstoppable economy and logistics force, and conquers China and takes with it inventions such as the compass. Ten years later, Rome kills off the last of the Chinese rebels.
A ship blown off course leads to the accidental discovery of Greenland; five years later Rome had conquered and inhabited Greenland. The Mongols and a few other empires collapse from economic decimation and Rome swiftly moves in to take the land.
With shipping into and around Greenland, it is not long before someone accidentally discovers Newfoundland and starts a colony as Romans move in by the hundreds. Natives are discovered to have both advanced versions of their weapons (for example, the crossbow) and they had firearms. The natives quickly surrender to the Romans, and Rome uses the newly conquered island as gateway into North America.
Rome has now colonized most of the land east of the Mississippi river and is beginning expeditions to South America. Rome has also conquered the northern half of Africa and the last challenging superpower of Rome takes a bad economic blow from having no territories in America, and it falls. Rome is almost unchallenged in the world, except for the unconquered American natives, the southern half of Africa, Japan, the small nation of Russia, the Philippines, the eastern half of Australia, the undiscovered Pacific Islands, and small bands of rebel Germans that do very little harm. The rifle is invented, and electricity is discovered, Rome (the city) is now the the largest and greatest city on Earth, with a population of 15 million.
North America is conquered from coast to coast, and South America is being taken quickly. The cotton gin is invented and the industrial revolution starts to kick off. Then, years later, the first powered flight takes place. The light bulb is made. Fifty years after that, iron ships begin to float and steam power replaces the wind. Christians now make up an overwhelming majority of Romans. Africa is now finished off, but guerrilla forces still remain.
The Americas are now completely conquered. But one year later the threat of civil war looms as Rome is plagued by bad economic times, rebellions and less military, but the economy is quickly restored when nuclear power is discovered in 1806 and by 1809 Rome could harness the power of the atom for electricity. And one year later the rebellions stop the military regains strength. The same year the automobile is invented and mass produced.
Man first walks on the moon, and the Roman flag is placed there. The remaining non-Roman countries fear nuclear annihilation, so they all team up along with the few resistance groups left to try to fight back against Rome. Japan buys a nuclear bomb on the black market and sets it off in the center of Rome (the city), but the senate is safe because the bomb went off an hour after they held their meeting and went home to their houses at the edge of the city. But, five million innocent people out of 25 million are not so lucky; Rome quickly takes action by dropping nuclear bombs on Russia and Japan, invading eastern Australia and southern Africa, and having the navy conquer the Pacific Islands one by one, and counter-terrorist groups form and take out the resistance movements. Fifty years later Rome is rebuilt and a few of the ancient ruins survived.
Mars is colonized and Rome has taken out all resistance on Earth. However, the Germans, Russians and Japanese are terribly oppressed around the world.