The Rome is a Latin city on the banks of the Tiber river. The city covers seven hills and is one of the most important centers of trade and culture on the Italian Peninsula.

Founding of Rome and the monarchy

According to local legends Rome was founded by the twins Romulus and Remus. Romulus and Remus were the illegitimate sons of a Vestal virgin and were therefore entrusted by their mother to a shepherd. When the brothers reached maturity, they decided to found a city on the banks of the Tiber. Not long after the founding of the city, a conflict broke out between the brothers that divided the early population. The supporters of Romulus eventually killed Remus, whereupon Romulus became Rome's first king. Rome in her early days was a safe haven for outlaws and outcasts, both hated and feared by their neighbours. From early on the Romans had to fight numerous wars against neigbouring tribes and cities. Rome was ruled by kings until the Romans revolted against their last king, Tarquinius Superbus.

The Republic

After deposing the last king Lucius Junius Brutus, the leader of the revolt, installed a republic governed by two consuls who were in power for only one year each. A senate formed by the fathers of significant families had to judge the legislation proposed by the consuls. The territory of Rome expanded as a result of several successful wars against neighbouring tribes and the Etruscans. Rome was sacked in 400 BC by Brennus, king of the Boii Celts, but survived it. The Romans eventually came to rule most of Latium and a number of areas throughout Italy while many areas not directly under their rule were loyal to them.

Samnite Wars and fall of Rome

Rome became one of the most powerful states in Italy. While expanding, the Romans came into conflict with the Samnite tribes to the south. In an attempt to fight the power of Rome, the Samnite tribes united in one Samnite League. The Roman armies made a lot of progress and were close to conquering all Samnite lands, until they attempted to take the Greek colony of Neapolis in 326 BCE. This turned out to be a big mistake, for it caused the recently restored Delian League to come to Neapolis' aid. When the Samnites saw a large Greek force coming to fight the same enemy, general Gaius Pontius proposed to the Greek troops to join forces to drive the Romans back. What followed was a successful campaign of combined Greek and Samnite troops winning battle after battle, eventually sacking and occupying Rome in 321 BCE.

Rome under the Pontid dynasty

After being sacked by Pontius, Rome was granted autonomy in local affairs, but had to obey the Pontid dynasty in military and foreign affairs. Rome continued to flourish as one of the most important Roman trade ports. In subsequent wars, Rome was captured from the Samnites by Carthrage and from Carthrage by the Delian League. It was one of the founding city states of the Hellenic Commonwealth.

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