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The Federal Republic of Romania (Romanian: Republica Federală România, RFR), colloquially known as Romania (România), is a nation state located in Eastern Europe. The modern day nation began in the 1850s from the unification of two Romanian principalities. Romania's borders expanded following World War I to include territories once belonging to the Austro-Hungarian Empire (Transylvania) and the Russian Empire (Bessarabia). The nation came under Soviet domination throughout the Cold War, divided between the Socialist Republic of Romania and the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic.
Following the reforms of the Soviet Union in the late 1980s, Romania and Moldavia began to move away from the control of Moscow, both of which became bloody roads. Communist Romanian leader Nicolae Ceaușescu was executed in 1989 (along with other top officials) during the Romanian Revolution (part of the Revolutions of 1989). Moldavia (along with five additional Soviet republics) opted out of remaining in the USSR, gaining independence in 1991. Despite the initially peaceful process, war broke out in March 1992 between Moldova and the pro-Soviet regions of Gagauzia and Transnistria, resulting in Soviet intervention. Both regions would eventually become recognized as part of the Soviet Union, which further pushed Moldavians towards neighboring Romania.
Following a referendum in March 1994, the majority of Moldavians favored reunification with Romania. Reunification would officially take place on January 1, 1995, with a federal constitution being adopted a few months later. Over the new year, "Romania Proper" became further divided into new states (based on historic regional identities). Despite the positive atmosphere following reunification, economic and political troubles continued throughout the 1990s. Romania would eventually become a member of the European Union in 2007.
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