|Timeline : Superpowers|
|Government||Caesaropapist Constitutional Republic|
|Population||2,140,000,000 inhabitants (1.819 billion citizens)|
|Population Density||44.96 inhb/km²|
|Language||Latin (de jure)|
Greek; Phoenician; Coptic; Aramaic; Brythonnic
|Leader||Caesar Cicero (Janus Antoninus Maximillianus)|
|Legislature||Imperial Senate (bicameral)|
|GDP per ca.||
$120,000 per person
|Development||#1 in the world|
|Currencies|| Denarius (Dn)|
|Territory||Mainland Europe up to the Ural Mountains; British Isles and Iceland; Anatolia; Coastal Middle East; North Africa; Saharan Africa; East African Coastline; North West Africa; OTL Zimbabwe, Zambia, Botswana and Madagascar; OTL India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Pakistan; OTL Australia and New Zealand; OTL Brazil, Uruguay, Bolivia, Paraguay and East Venezuela; OTL Lesser Antilles, Puerto Rico and Hispaniola; OTL Bahamas and Turks and Caicos; US East Coast up to Michigan and Missouri line.|
The Roman Empire (La: Imperium Romanum) or Senate and People of Rome, a caesaropapist constitutional republic, covers a third of the planet. The most powerful sovereign state in the modern world and the largest and oldest country in history, Rome controls land on every continent and shares borders with every sovereign state.
The Roman Imperium was founded, along with its capital, Rome, on the Tiber in 753 BCE by the eponymous Romulus. Shortly thereafter, the city was taken over by Etruscan kings. The last one, Tarquinius Superbus, was overthrown by Brutus of the Junii clan in 509 BCE in revolt against recent disrespect to a noble. This series of events created the First Republic.
The Republic's history was tumultuous, defined by long periods of unrest and dictatorship. But it upheld the democratic principles on which it was established until a general named Gaius Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon River into Italy in 49 BCE. His actions plunged the Republic into civil war. Fighting did not end until 27 BCE. Rome was reborn from the fire like a phoenix into a magnificent new entity, the Roman Empire.
Rome's new empire experienced numerous wars in the last two millennia without major losses. But the state almost met its downfall in the Second Civil War, splitting it in twain. The upheaval ended with the fusion of the papal and imperial thrones in 1066 CE. The power of this caesaropapacy ensured the persistence of the Imperium under its leader's near absolute religious and civil authority.
No country in history compares to the modern Imperium. It has control over land, air and space that is unmatched by states on this Earth or nearly any alternate Earth. The Caesar's domain encompasses a third of the planet's surface, and a fourth of the human race. In 1837, Alexander XIV reportedly told a Muscovite ambassador, "I am called the most powerful monarch in the world. The sun never sets in my dominion."
Rome, as a name, is accepted to stem from the ancient founder, Romulus, a descendant of Aeneas of Troy. This theory has gone nearly undisputed for the last two and a half millennia. Nevertheless, historians note a similarity to the Greek word rhòme (ῤώμη) for strength, though the comparison only shows its appropriateness and possibly where Romulus got his name. When the City encountered South Italian Greeks, the state and all its possessions began to be referred to simply as Rome. This is an insightful moniker because whether a republic or an empire, the state's primary purpose has been serving the interests of this city.
References to the state from within have always been simple. Its old name was the Republic. In the time of Julius Caesar, senators would urge people to act "in the interest of the Republic" or "to preserve the Republic". By the death of Nero, the Senate would refer to the power of the Caesars over Roman territory. The word for this, Imperium, evokes strong patriotic sentiment. No other state has imperial power, only royal or popular power. On maps, Romans label these monarchies with the distasteful word Regnum and democracies with the simple Republica.
Today, Romans still know their country as the Imperium but non-Italians are wont to call it Roma and all citizens refer to the government of the state as Senatus or the Senate.
The official name for the state of Rome is Senatus Populusque Romanus - the Senate and People of Rome. Its abbreviation, SPQR, is proudly inscribed on Roman landmarks, triumphal arches, palaces, and milestones.
Elsewhere, there are many names for the country of the Roman people. Ottomans and many in the Arab World know Rome as سيطرة (the Hegemon). In Mongolia and Japan its name is roughly the same as the Latin Hellas. To the Inca and Maya, the Roman state is Rhom and Tonalixco. Nordic citizens know it as Romerriget and the Marble Empire. There is no consistency in the foreign names for the Imperium but people from every background know one common name - Rome.
Main Article: Timeline
According to tradition, Rome was founded along the Tiber by Romulus in 753 BCE. Roman historians agree that he descended from Numitor, rightful king of Alba Longa and descendant of the Trojan prince Aeneas. This establishes Rome's moral legitimacy for Greece, Anatolia, and Italy.
The early city was a monarchy governed by Kings (Latin: Regis) elected by the Senate and people of Rome to serve for life. But the Etruscan kings had no legitimacy on the throne and the seventh king, Tarquinius Superbus, was expelled by the efforts of Lucius Junius Brutus and the Senate. Subsequently, the monarchy was dissolved in favor of a Republic, the First Roman Republic.
A new Roman order began in 509 BCE, seeing the nation through its conquest of Italy, Carthage, Greece, Anatolia, Gaul and Egypt. Rome's ambition derived from similarly ambitious leaders, such as Cornelius Sulla, Julius Caesar, Pompey Magnus and Marcus Antonius. However, the contention for leadership of the City led to the Republic's downfall in a series of Civil Wars from 49 to 31 BCE. Four years later, Gaius Julius Caesar (Octavianus) was bestowed the title Augustus (Venerated One). His reorganization of the state into a Principate, where Caesars ruled by decree of the Senate and People of Rome, informally ended Rome's democracy.
The new government had a glorious millennial rule, ending when the state split into an Eastern Monarchy and Western Republic, the Second Roman Republic, in a civil war. The Imperium was re-united by the Pope, who crowned himself the next Caesar. Unification altered the mode of government. The new emperors were regarded as greater than other mortals, though not as deities. This period in Roman history is divided into two unequal parts. The Pontificate goes from 1066 to 1372, a time when the identity of the caesarship with the papacy was clear. After Faustus Galerius Pertinax took power in a peaceful coup, the emperor became recognized more for his legal authority, rather than his religious one. This final period - the present era - is the Dominate.
- Kingdom => Republic => Principate => Civil War => Pontificate => Dominate
The territory of the Roman Empire covers approximately 47,614,000 km². Of this, 26,490,000 km² (55%) makes up the contiguous provinces of Eurasia. New World colonies constitute 9,330,000 km² of land while the Pacific island territories are another 7,880,000 km². Colonies in India extend for 3,850,000 km² and consist of the Hindu and Islamic halves of the subcontinent. Altogether, Rome administers one third of the planet's landmasses.
All land within the Imperium falls under one of two classifications: Roma, the master city itself which has total political independence per se and Colonia, those territories owned by Rome.
The diversity of terrain, flora and fauna in the Imperium is astonishing. Regarding plants and animals, there are three areas of interest dispersed across the planet. Additionally, unique environmental extremes of geographical significance can be found at three locations.
Of the ecological zones, the first to mention is Malagasia, an African island containing thousands of plant and animal species not found anywhere else on the planet. Of its flora, 90% are unique to the island, a fact which has made it intensely interesting to the Inca, who believe it holds a wealth of medical substances. However, the human presence on the island, limited as it may be by provincial laws, has reduced the level of vegetation coverage to only 45% of what it was 300 years ago, and has led to a 70% level of deforestation. Today, the rate at which greenery is being lost is close to zero.The second region notable for its ecology is the Great Columbian Rainforest in South Columbia. While only 60% of it is in Roman land, the forest's diversity is tremendous in those 3.3 million km². One in five bird species, 3,000 species of fish and 2.5 million species of insect live there. The vegetation consists of some 50,000 species of plant, with thousands anticipated for discovery. Unfortunately, like Malagasia, the rainforest experienced a great deal of deforestation over the last few centuries of industrial and agricultural expansion. 190,000 km² of forest, greater than the surface area of the Greek provinces, has been cleared by machines and a total clearance rate of 2400 km² per year persists. The rainforest, as an important source of future wood for the paper and construction industries, has been targeted for extensive collegial replanting programs. Guilds in the lumber industry expect a sustainable exploitation of the rainforest due to renewal efforts.
The third ecologically significant place in the empire is Australia, a hub of unique aquatic and desert life. 80% of the species in the deserts on the mainland are endemic to Australis, including 800 unique species of lizard. The island's greatest contributor to biodiversity is the vast coral reef that stretches around 2000 km of its perimeter. The magnificent Claustrum Cotes Magnum (Great Barrier Reef) is the agglomeration of billions of tiny organisms known as coral polyps which form a reef belt visible from outer space. Unlike the aforementioned forest ecosystems, the Great Barrier Reef, far from being threatened by human presence, is actually growing in size and splendor due to expansion by Roman artists, architects and biologists. The aesthetic beauty of the reef alone has driven many, the Caesar included, to protect and nurture this wonder of the natural world.
For geographic wonders, the Imperium is blessed with the Himalayan Mountain range at the north-eastern edge of India, home of the highest mountain on Earth, Alexandros Mons (after the ruling dynasty on discovery), and over a hundred peaks taller than 7,000 meters. The mountain range is so extensive that its drainage basin covers most of Asia, irrigating farms which feed over 3 billion people.
The Mediterranean Basin, known to Romans as Mare Nostrum, is a 2.3 million km² body of water. The womb of Western Civilization, the Mediterranean is one of the largest seas in the world. A few decades ago, the empire terraformed it into a large saline lake sandwiched between Europe and Africa. The transformation significantly altered its physical state, replacing entry points with dams and waterways, and reducing its sea level by 40 m. It is an even more impressive environmental feature for being maintained by human forces. Most inward and outward flow is controlled by strategically located engineering stations. This allows total volume, salinity, and ecology to be modified at the will of the Imperium.
The last of the empire's geological wonders is the Columbian Falls near the border with Tawatinsuyu. The waterfall is the tallest in the world with a height of 988 m and a plunge of 816 m. Scaffolding was constructed at the cliffs to release the stream at an elevated point. The new topmost edge is nine meters higher than ground and surrounded by a marble archway. The peak's resort is one of the most popular tourist attractions in South Columbia and a location of choice for Romano-Inca political conferences.
Weather manipulation is not uniquely practiced by Roman engineers. Japanese, Maya, and Mongol engineers can seed clouds to induce rain with various degrees of precision. While the Maya use the most effective chemical inducer, the Romans deploy the seeding most efficiently using nanotechnology. Missile deployment foregoes the need for aircraft to release the inducer. Cloud seeding is the only technology for manipulating the weather that is available to multiple countries. Rome controls the weather with three unique techniques:
There are over a hundred space-based solar energy collectors in orbit around the Earth. Rome employs them to beam microwave energy down to ground stations, ultimately providing for a fifth of the country's power needs. With little effort, Rome can direct and focus this energy onto developing weather systems such as hurricanes, tornadoes, or typhoons. By gentle heating, hurricanes can be steered away from the coast and tornadoes can be degraded down to a warm gale. Normal weather systems can even be pushed in any direction by the same technique. By widening the beam, the ambient temperature over a large area can even be increased by noticeable degrees, although this is discouraged due to residual effects on humans, plants, and animals.
For manipulating the weather in major cities, integrated climate control systems are built into the city streets. Air can be purified of bacteria by ionizers, heated by radiators in the autumn or winter, and cooled by refrigerators in the spring or summer. Climate control is integrated seamlessly into a city, being almost inconspicuous to the naked eye. Urban temperatures in Constantinople, Athens, Londinium, Parisium, Hierosolyma, Petra, Halorium, Carthage, Memphis, Syracuse, and 18 other cities are maintained between 0 and 25 °C throughout the year. As an exception to urban regulations, Rome has its heating systems supplemented by mirror satellites in tundra orbits, keeping its ambient temperature in the upper part of the range.
On a global scale, climate control is strictly regulated by the Senate. Once detected, holes in the ozone layer of the planet are sealed by processing oxygen in aircraft high in the upper atmosphere. High-pressure ultraviolet factories in the bowels of these planes transform dioxygen into trioxygen (ozone) faster than natural atmospheric reactions, sealing local holes. The invention of this technique was necessitated by an international scare in the 18th century when an antarctic-sized seasonal hole in the ozone was discovered and attributed to chlorofluorocarbons used by Roman and Mayan devices. An important atmospheric gas known as CO2 is regularly fixed into carbon polymers by the Galiran process. This practice not only lowers the global concentration of the gas but also creates oils and plastics. Careful management of global climate will continue for the foreseeable future.
Government & Politics
The Roman Empire is a caesaropapist constitutional republic governed by its Caesar (Emperor) under his imperium maius (supreme executive power), his auctoritas principis (primary legislative authority), and his jure divis (divine mandate as Pope). Other magistrates possess political powers subsidiary to and even derived from those of an emperor. A Caesar's other titles include Princeps Civitatis (First Citizen), Augustus (Venerable One), primus inter pares (first among equals), Imperator (Supreme Commander), and Pontifex Maximus (Pope). Separate from his public office, a Caesar bears the highest Dignitas (social standing) of a Roman citizen and has sacrosanctity from physical harm under Catholic and Roman laws. Violating his sanctity is sacrilege and treason - punished by death.
The papal reactionary movement of 1066 gave a Caesar the sole right to represent God on Earth under canon law of the Roman Catholic Church. The religious powers of Pope are diluted in their new person; a Caesar cannot bring forth new religious dogma. This authority was handed to the person of Deydiakonos. Still, as Bishop of Rome, the emperor may issue binding papal bulls, canonize saints, and structurally reform the Church. As sovereign of the Senate and People of Rome, a Caesar alone can enact legislation promulgated by the Senate. For his executive powers, an emperor can appoint ministers and perform the functions of most ministries and for his administrative powers, he can dismiss and reappoint praetors for provincial government.
On top of his legislative powers, the Caesar: has imperium (executive power) over the entire Roman military, can appoint or disband praeministeria, and circumvent the traditional procedures of court to prosecute or acquit at will (unless opposed by the Senate). A Caesar's judicial rights are outlined in the Lex Augustis. Most emperors have wielded some powers which are not legally binding. Citizens indulge their leader in these respects because of his supreme personal dignitas. The practice of an emperor enforcing his social standing with physical brutality through the Praetorian Guard is (thankfully) ancient history.
Ironically, the union of the papacy and caesarship had the political effect of weakening the Church and its influence. Rather than extending ecclesiastical or theological influence over matters of state, it has imbued Roman theology and religious life with a distinct secular flavour, shaping religious doctrine to academic morals and creating an apolitical relationship between the public and the federal government, for the benefit of national stability.
National LegislatureMain Article: Imperial Senate
In some ways, Rome is autocratic, with immense power is vested in a single leader. However, the empire's constitution is its ultimate authority in every judicial, executive, and legislative matter. The Politeia Romana (Roman Constitution) has 32 Pronuntiatios. Every constitutional proclamation is inviolable. Neither the Senate, nor the people, nor the military, nor the Caesar can break them. The document's purpose is to guarantee imperial citizens certain inalienable rights against imperial, senatorial, collegial, or cultural oppression and establish republican laws which institute a fair government of the people, by the people, and exclusively for the people.
The power of Roman citizens (demos) is exercized through their right of assembly. Choices that must be made by the people are settled in mass public votes. Anyone with imperial citizenship in a voting region gets one vote. A conglomeration of voting citizens making a legally potent action is a Popular Assembly (Comitia Popula). Romans are proud of this extreme direct democracy, comparable to ancient Greek polities, since it embodies their highly popular and direct style of self-government. Nowhere is this connection between a citizen and the state more present than in the signing of the social contract that formally grants an adult his or her citizenship.
Rome's legislature is a bicameral (two house) body known traditionally as the Imperial Senate. The Lower House is the Comitia Curiata (Curiate Assembly) but tradition is to refer to it as the Curia (Assembly). Members of the Assembly, officers of regular legislation, are referred to as Senatores (Senators). Regular bills need a 50% senatorial majority to become senatus consultum. Such a bill will be posted in the Forum the following morning for review by magistrates and citizens. Afterward, the Caesar chooses to either enact or veto the bill, unless it carries a supermajority in the Senate.
Senatorial procedure is heavily influenced by tradition. Senators vote by individually consenting to the bill, and debate persists for a customary period of time before being halted by the president of the Senate. No bill except fiscal proposals can reach the Curia without originating in the Upper House of parliament. Fiscal matters of the Senate, like public funding and taxation, are dealt with according to custom. One senator proposes a bill for discussion and then another senator seconds the proposal.
Legislature's Upper House is the Comitium Consularis (Consular Congress), a body that traces its origins to the Second Roman Republic. Members of Congress are Consules (Consuls) but are not like the bureaucrats who bore their name during the First Republic. Consules govern the highest division of the Roman Empire - Foederatae - which are regions equivalent to cultural dominions. The consuls have collective power to write federal legislation, which no other body can do, and individual power to locally administer a foederata.
The Consul Italii, direct representative of the Roman people, is the most potent legislative post in the imperial government. A distinguished consul and the only person other than an emperor that can call Congress, the Consul Italii is elected by direct vote of citizens in the city of Rome on the Field of Mars (the site of all the Eternal City's popular assemblies). The Princeps Senatus, president of the Senate, has the next most legislative power. Once only an honorary title, this office now grants arbitrative rights over senatorial proceedings and allows its bearer to call out orders of business or declare the winner of a legislative debate. The Princeps is chosen by indirect election in the Senate every November and begins his term on New Year's Day. When in power he can call the Senate, cancel the weekly sessions on Sunday, sway a vote (both officially and by his support) and act as deputy-regent in the complete absence of a Caesar; the Consul Italii taking on the representative duties. Tradition - always key in Roman politics - dictates that a Princeps must perform the act of promulgating bills and declaring the full content of a senatus consultum. He also has the power of Tacite. Once a Princeps' term is up in December, he must wait five years before running again (a period known as a Lustrum).
Main Article: Ministries
Two thousand senators (discluding the Princeps Senatus) run the affairs of the Lower House and 40 consuls (including the Consul Italii) control the Upper House. Each senator is elected for a 5 year term by popular assembly of the citizens in his curia, a small administrative region theoretically consisting of 900,000 citizens. However, the people are limited in their election choices as senatorial candidates must be of the patrician order. After a thorough background check by government officials, any local nobleman may stand for senatorial election.
Roman parliament has bureaucrats other than senators and consuls. Praeministra (Ministers) are the executive members of the various operational government bodies such as the treasury or technological authority. Depending on the minister in question, anywhere from zero to several thousand people may work in his Ministerium (Ministry). There are fifty ministries run by the Roman government. Parliament's Ministry of the Treasury employs ten tax magistrates called Quaestores. These scrupulous men are charged with collecting taxes from praetors for the federal government, calling out financial corruption, and serving as right-hand men and messengers of the treasury and its minister, the Mensarius Superbus (Supreme Financier).
Other magistrati (government officers) operate outside the Senate. Most powerful are the illustrious Censores - 18 members of the Comitia Censoria (Ministry of the Census) responsible for upholding public morality, protecting the Constitution and administering the official Public Census every Lustrum. Their duty and power to issue a public inquiry into literally any military, civil, or private activity supercedes every institution in the empire. In practice, there is no office higher than the Comitia Censoria, leading some foreigners to speculate that they are the true power behind the curulian throne.
Within the Ministry of the Treasury are 120 Aedilis who supervise spending of money from the treasury, giving them the reverse role of the quaestores. Whenever any federal funds are appropriated, an aedile must be consulted; consequently, the emperor always has three or four at hand. Furthermore, one or two will usually be sent to the construction sites of public monuments to ensure efficient spending of government funds.
Another major bureaucrat operating outside the Senate is the Plebeian Tribune, a position with extensive oversight of legislative activity in the Senate and the Palace. The duty of Tribunus is to safeguard the well-being of the common people, the plebeian order, from the greed and corruption of magistrates, aristocrats, and collegiates. He is the sole magistratus from a non-patrician background and is immune to reproach from any office other than the Censors.
Chief administrator of the Roman Empire is its Caesar. In theory, the Imperium is under his imperium (executive power). As an extension of his power, he appoints a Praetor (Governor) to run each Provincia (Province) and a Praeministrum to run each function of the federal government. Separate from the imperial domain is the province of Judaea, whose praetorship is exclusively held by the Judaean Consul, elected by the people of Hierosolyma; his province and foederata is legally external to the dominion of the emperor of Rome. This unique relationship characterizes the place of the Jewish people in the Roman Empire.
Under normal circumstances, available praetorian posts are brought before the Senate in August so that elections can be held to fill them with ambitious Italian patricians. All Italian members of the patrician class can run for these offices, the stipulation being that they quit their current job and leave for their appointed province no more than two months after winning their election (making holders of major offices such as Princeps Senatus and Caesar ineligible). The purpose behind praetorship is for every province (with the exception of Judaea) to be administered by a citizen from Rome itself. This is a relic of the custom of maintaining direct Roman rule over all the provinces. However, the emperor can impeach any reigning praetor, forcing a new election unless the impeachment is vetoed by the Tribune.
The lowest political division is the Municipia (Township), administered according to a system distinct from higher strata. Praefecti Urborum (City Prefects, mayors) are elected every other year by popular assembly of the inhabitants (not just citizens) of the township. This is the only titled government position, other than Tribune, that can be held by someone outside the patrician order. However, unlike the Tribune, city prefects are not magistrates.
At this point it should be obvious that Romans love elections. Not only are they dramatic affairs with which people have a vested interest, but it gives citizens a real sense of power and involvement in government. Indeed, moral philosophers have applauded the ancient practice of comitiae populae and revived it as the primary civil regulation on the powers of the Senate, Ministries, and Caesar by not only putting the appointment of senators, consuls, and emperors in their power, but allowing them to appoint Censors and Tribunes to directly defend against corruption.
List of Emperors
- Caesar Augustus (Gaius Octavian Thurinus) : 27 BC-14 AD
- Caesar Tiberius I (Tiberius Claudius Nero) : 14-37
- Caesar Caligula (Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus) : 37-41
- Caesar Claudius I (Tiberius Claudius Drusus) : 41-54
- Caesar Nero (Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus) : 54-68
Year of the Four Emperors
- Imperator Galba (Servius Supulcius Galba) : 68
- Imperator Otho (Marcus Salvius Otho) : 69
- Imperator Vitellius (Aulus Vitellius Germanicus) : 69
- Caesar Vespasian (Titus Flavius Vespasianus) : 69-79
- Caesar Titus I (Titus Flavius Vespasianus) : 79-81
- Caesar Domitian (Titus Flavius Domitianus) : 81-96
- Caesar Nerva (Marcus Cocceius Nerva) : 96-98
- Caesar Trajan (Marcus Ulpius Traianus) : 98-117
- Caesar Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus) : 117-138
- Caesar Antoninus Pius (Titus Aurelius ... Antoninus) : 138-161
- Caesar Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus) : 161-180
- Caesar Sulla Magnus (Gaius Corellus Sulla) : 180-228
- Caesar Marcus (Marcus Fulvius Aurelius) : 228-262
- Caesar Aurelian (Lucius Domitius Aurelianus) : 262-278
- Caesar Heracleitus (Lucius Corellus Sulla) : 278-314
- Caesar Constantine Magnus (Flavius Valerius Constantinus) : 314-339
- Caesar Agricola (Gnaeus Aurelius Agricola) : 339-360
- Caesar Sapiens (Gnaeus Aurelius Agricola) : 360-395
- Caesar Aurelius (Marcus Antoninus Aurelius) : 395-402
- Imperator Antonine (Gaius Antoninus Aurelius) : 402-408
- Caesar Maximius (Gaius Aurelius Maximius) : 408-417
- Caesar Antonius (Publius Aurelius Antonius) : 417-431
- Caesar Scipio I (Gaius Aurelius Antonius) : 431-447
- Caesar Romulus Augustus (Romulus Aurelius Antonius) : 447-452
- Caesar Draco (Gaius Julius Draconus) : 452-485
- Caesar Avitus (Gaius Draconus Avitus) : 485-494
- Caesar Darius (Lucius Draconus Darius) : 494-507
- Caesar Scipio II (Lucius Draconus Scipio) : 507-528
- Caesar Ulpius (Flavius Draconus Ulpius) : 528-537
- Caesar Fabius Magnus (Gnaeus Fabius Comptus) : 537-582
- Caesar Fabius II (Gnaeus Fabius Comptus) : 582-595
- Caesar Petro (Quintus Corvus Lutatius Flavius Petro) : 595-621
- Caesar Aquillus (Marcus Cornelius Aquillus) : 621-639
- Caesar Cleganus (Lucius Valerius Cleganus) : 639-642
- Caesar Tyrianus (Aulus Tyrianus Papilius) : 642-687
- Caesar Valerius (Lucius Valerius Messalus) : 687-738
- Caesar Glaucinus (Lucius Aemilius Glaucinus) : 738-761
- Caesar Quirilus (Gaius Julius Quirilus) : 761-782
- Caesar Paulus (Gaius Julius Paulus) : 782-827
- Caesar Illyrio (Publius Aemilius Illyrio) : 827-835
- Caesar Cassius (Johannis Cassius Pius) : 835-889
- Caesar Calvinus (Kaeso Aurelius Calvinus) : 889-916
- Caesar Gallianus (Gaius Gallianus Honorius) : 916-949
- Caesar Arcadius (Aelius Flavius Arcadius) : 949-956
- Caesar Theophilus (Johannis Annaeus Theophilus) : 956-972
- Caesar Marius (Marius Junius Silanus) : 972-997
- Caesar Marius (Marius Junius Silanus) : 972-1008
- Imperator Marius II (Marius Junius Silanus) : 1008-1009
- Imperator Oratonius (Marius Junius Oratonius) : 1009-1015
- Caesar Legarus (Lucius Legarus Pius) : 1015-1022
- Caesar Aegranus (Manius Aegranus Votus) : 1066-1076
- Caesar Columbus (Kaeso Aegranus Columbus) : 1076-1139
- Caesar Magnus I (Tertius Aegranus Magnus) : 1139-1175
- Caesar Sextius Severus (Sextius Severus Curia) : 1175-1195
- Caesar Magnus Magnus (Optimus) (Amulius Magnus Plutarchus) : 1195-1247
- Caesar Magnus III (Aulus Magnus Varus) : 1247-1262
- Caesar Rufus (Publius Septimius Rufus) : 1262-1276
- Caesar Varro (Gaius Valerius Varro) : 1276-1295
- Caesar Calva (Gaius Julianus Calva) : 1295-1301
- Caesar Julius (Gnaeus Julianus Calva) : 1301-1321
- Caesar Ferrarus (Amulius Julianus Ferrarus) : 1321-1348
- Caesar Ursinius (Titus Galius Ursinius) : 1348-1361
- Caesar Valerius (Quintus Valerius Eccus) : 1361-1372
- Caesar Alexander I (Faustus Galerius Pertinax) : 1372-1395
- Caesar Alexander II (Titus Pertinax Alexander) : 1395-1462
- Caesar Alexander III (Aulus Gabinius Alexander) : 1462-1487
- Caesar Alexander IV (Gaius Cardassus Alexander) : 1487-1512
- Caesar Alexander V (Gaius Cassius Alexander) :1512-1548
- Caesar Alexander VI (Marcus Sextus Alexander) :1548-1583
- Caesar Alexander VII (Septimius Junius Alexander) : 1583-1601
- Caesar Alexander VIII (Gnaeus Junius Alexander) : 1601-1634
- Caesar Alexander IX (Lucius Placidus Alexander) : 1634-1689
- Caesar Alexander X (Tiberius Gaullus Alexander) : 1689-1721
- Caesar Alexander XI (Titus Corvus Alexander) : 1721-1753
- Caesar Alexander XII (Sextus Corvus Alexander) : 1753-1784
- Caesar Alexander XIII (Marcus Hosidius Alexander) : 1784-1804
- Caesar Alexander Magnus (Tiberius Bracchus Alexander) : 1804-1885
- Caesar Pontifex (Pakus Martinex Rullianus Juvenis) : 1885-1914
- Caesar Sulla II (Marcus Rullianus Juvenis) : 1914-1950
- Caesar Lucius (Lucius Halerius Novitas) : 1950-1967
- Caesar Raphael (Tiberius Calva Mirifico ) : 1967-1985
- Caesar Cicero Magnus (Janus Antoninus Maximillianus) :1985-
The vast land of the Roman Empire is divided into territories known as Provinciae, ruled by Praetores (Governors) appointed by the Senate whenever a Praetorian position opens (either by resignation, death, or impeachment). Praetors must be patricians born and having lived no less than 30 years of their lives in Italy. Once elected, the new governor forfeits his other magisterial positions and private jobs. Consequently, praetorship is a common successive post for senators or consuls after their terms. However, the position is precarious. A Caesar can remove Praetors at will. See above in Government & Politics for more information on the regional divisions of the Imperium Romanum (e.g. Foederata, Curia, Municipia).
List of Provinces
- Germania Inferioris
- Germania Superioris
- Muskovia Inferioris
- Muskovia Superioris
- Magna Muskovia
- Magna Tainuria
- Nova Graecia
Rome's Constitution is the heart of its law - without a doubt, the single most important document for the citizens of the empire. Nothing in the Constitution can be contradicted. For this reason, its tenets must be protected by the highest government office, the Censores, who have the power to conduct an inquiry into literally any activity in the Imperium. In any censorial investigation, evidence against the accused is brought before the eighteen person Comitia Censoria (Censorial Assembly). A 78% majority for a guilty verdict is needed before the appropriate punishment for the crime - consistent with the Constitution - is administered.
The imperial judicial system emphasizes honour (dignitas). Citizens brought in as witnesses are always believed unless evidence directly contradicts their statements. Lying in a public court would be a fatal blow to a citizen's dignitas, a permanent scar on the reputation.
A trial for a citizen is presided over by a judge of the defendant's social order. Evidence is interpreted by a random jury of four plebeians, four equites and four patricians. While the majority of trials are held in a public urban field, the defendant can pay 5,000 Dn to take the case to the Tribunalis Ultima (Supreme Court) in Rome. Every citizen also bears the right to take an accusation before his province's Praetor. Whether the Praetor hears the case depends on his mood and the persistence of the citizen making a request.
There is a unique degree of egalitarian and cautionary principles used in Roman law. The natural rights of everyone, regardless of age, race, or gender, are preserved in its procedures and the same legal treatment is guaranteed to any citizen regardless of social class. Classism is nullified by drawing members of a jury from everywhere in Roman society and by only permitting judges of the social order of a defendant. Furthermore, judicial process is under the oversight of a Tribune and a committee of Censors, both of which have an eye for honesty and fairness.
Outside the courtroom, citizens are afforded medical care and receive free education. Every citizen has an equal share of national representation in the Senate and the cultural values of citizens are enforced in Rome by Consuls for culture. On the whole, there are great benefits to being a citizen of Rome.
Civitatem Romanum (citizenship) is the individual possession of every man and woman recognized by the Roman Senate. For a person to be a cives (citizen) they must be 16 years of age or older and satisfy one of the following conditions:
- Born to two Roman citizens.
- Born to one Roman citizen within a Roman province and served a set term in the Roman military.
- Recognized as a citizen by a Caesar or the Senate.
Citizenship is the most coveted possession of a resident of the Imperium Romanum. Once held, it is irrevocable without extreme violations of national law - demonstrable guilt in treason, perjury, barratry, or desertion. Citizens are exempt from the painful death penalties and are guaranteed the protection of the Legion when traveling outside the limites of the empire.
Since 1964, female citizenship has been identical to male citizenship. Any citizen today can run for office, vote, or own property. Non-citizens, however, are excluded from the Legion, political offices, embassies, free health care, free education, and Italy. Neither marriage to a citizen nor birth from one Roman parent can guarantee citizenship but it is possible for a son or daughter of a lone Roman to seek citizenship through military service and an eventual request to a provincial Praetor.
By the age of 16, a candidate for civitatem is allowed to visit the local Praetorian Palace to begin to become a citizen. First, a presentation of credentials is required, after which the candidate is to return once the secretaries have completed a background check. On return to the Praetor, an interview is conducted to determine whether the individual is fit to make decisions on his or her own behalf - an easy test to pass for anyone over 15. Finally, the candidate must read and sign a lengthy contract (pactum socialis) and declare to the reigning Praetor, "Civis romanus sum" (I am a Roman citizen), before being given a small token, which is nigh impossible to fake, proving his or her citizenship. Every new citizen's name is entered into official records.
Reviewing prospective citizens is one of the highest duties of a Praetor. In a large province like Magna Britannia, about 800,000 children become eligible for citizenship each year. There the task of interviewing the candidates is delegated to sixty magistrates employed by the Censorial Assembly. The 160,000 work hours required to interview every new citizen is a tremendous task but one that occurs without difficulty every year.
The process of acquiring Roman citizenship reflects social contract theory. As electors, citizens are required to be of sufficient ability to think for themselves and to understand their rights and duties. In this way, the government can be made dependent on the people as the true sovereigns of Rome. Political power exists solely by virtue of this legal relationship.
Possessing citizenship in Rome is no small advantage in life. Besides the tax and welfare benefits, citizens are defended by the Legion anywhere in the world - allowing a cives to walk the earth unmolested - and granted immunity from foreign trial - exile and deportation are the only powers other states have over Roman citizens. The reverse is not true. In this day, the proudest boast that a man or woman can make truly is civis romanus sum.
Although it has tremendous benefits, citizenship comes with great responsibility. A Roman citizen must demonstrate honour, virtue, and vigour. He cannot betray his country, lie on his name, or abandon his civil or military commitments. Failure to abide by these duties can result in loss of citizenship after a fair trial. By consequence, citizens are instilled with firm reasons to be honest witnessess in court, to never plot against the state, and to never desert the Legion.
Maintaining the peace in cities, towns, and villages are vigiles (police). The fluidity of officer jurisdictions is such that any vigilum can be quickly assigned elsewhere in the empire or make arrests outside his usual patrol routes. Vigilum is a relatively unreliable job for a citizen as they are hired and fired to meet present needs, with only the most natural vigiles retaining their posts. The political nature of the job is such that people may take a break from work to fill a temporary demand for officers while their employer is compensated by the provincial government.
Rome, the city and province, uniquely lacks vigiles patrolling its streets, having other means of civil protection. Praetoriani (Praetorian Guards) are the most distinguished officers of the law, with an average annual salary of 2,900 Dn ($145,000 US). While Praetorians primarily patrol the Imperial and Valentissima districts, other districts are protected by watchmen hired by a local collegium in what are technically private security forces or by the legionaries of the emperor's personal 101st legion.
Magistrates are afforded personal Lictors (imperial bodyguards) according to the degree of political imperium possessed by their office - an emperor has 24 lictors and a censor has 18 but a praefectus urbi has 2. Wielding the fasces to indicate their civil authority, lictors have the power to arrest suspected criminals and kill anyone they deem a threat to their assigned magistrate.
MilitaryThe Roman armed forces has four main divisions:
- The Legion (Army)
- Classis Imperialis (Navy)
- Legio Caelis Custodiae (Air Force)
- Legio Aetheria (Space Task Force)
Military expenditure consumes 3.4% of Rome's GDP, the second highest portion in the world. This is greater than 175 billion Dn ($9 trillion) as the Imperium has considerable wealth. 24% of military spending goes to satellite defense, 20% to the Air Force, 18% to the Legion, 17% to the Navy, 15% to static defenses, and another 6% to miscellaneous expenditures like the private jet for military leaders and public Triumphs.
- The Legion fields 1,542,180 legionaries and 3,000,000 national guardsmen. Their engines of war are maintained by teams of thousands of military engineers. The most potent of these machines are Testudos (Tanks). Smaller than the Mongol and Maya armies, the Legion equips its troops with weaponry that surpasses any other force in history.
- The Imperial Fleet employs over 1,200,000 crewmen and thousands of commanders and engineers. The Imperial Navy is the second largest in the world, running 90 nuclear aircraft carriers, 320 battleships, 700 Destroyers, 980 transport-assault ships and about 440 assorted cruisers and small attack vessels. Since the Romans advantageously apply automation in many ship functions, the required number of personnel for each vessel is miniscule when compared with other countries.
- The Aerial Defense Legion boasts an impressive 1,864,000 active airmen and 600,000 pilots in reserves. Another 350,000 engineers and IT specialists run the operations and logistics of the air force. Employment of the Aerial Legion reaches 2,814,000 people. The Roman Air Force is the largest and most powerful one in the world, easily outclassing the combined air squadrons of all other countries combined.
- The Space Legion reportedly has over 4,300,000 technicians and officers. Its most essential asset are its orbital artillery installations, vital as they are to the imperial military machine. Presently, 40 missile satellites, 40 kinetic bombardment satellites and 160 laser satellites remain in orbit around the Earth, which is to say nothing of the hundreds of barracks, surveillors and fighters Rome has in space. The combination of these military installations has made Rome a nearly omniscient and omnipotent force.
Rome's military is backed by the largest stockpile of nuclear weapons on Earth. About 7,416 ICBMs are stored in facilities across the empire, either underwater, underground, on the moon and on battleships. The majority of atomic warheads use a single-stage fusion design, while the rest are neutron bombs or dual-stage H-bombs. A great deal of these rockets will open in the atmosphere releasing multiple independent reentry vehicles (MIRVs) for a maximum spread of destruction. Each of the rest detonate as a single massive explosion.
Missions of a subtle nature required the work of the Munus Indicius Romanus (Roman Intelligence Service) to maximize discretion. A division of the Praetorian Guard, MIR operates the only spy network in the empire, with Agents spread across the globe. These Agents have become the most feared men in the world, undergoing psychological scrutiny and rigorous physical as well as mental training. An Agent's effectiveness is matched only by the deadly undetectability and fighting prowess of the Mongol Shaolin Monks.
The Senate makes no secret of its military intentions to the national and foreigns press. Statements to the public freely admit: restraining foreign powers, overthrowing threatening regimes, and destabilizing national foes. The central strategic goals of the Legion and Classis are defense of the Imperium at all costs and pursuance of Rome's policies by non-political means. These constitute the heart of Rome's armed forces.
Every province is equally secure, with the exceptions of some Sub-Saharan colonies, but many are not defended by their own legions. Supplementing the national defense of the Legion and Classis is the National Guard of the Roman Empire (Castellanae Imperiae). Its instrument is the web of castra (forts) dotting the Imperium. At least one operates in each province, supplying between 1,000 and 5,000 Castellanara to its protection. A single castrum is administered by a Praefectus Castrorum (base commander) of the same rank as centurions. His authority over his assigned base is typically respected by higher rank officers (like Duces) but can be overridden if necessary.
Besides the guardsmen based in a castrum, new legionary recruits (tirones) and reserve legionaries (adscripticii) reside there to prepare for deployment to replace fallen legionaries. Legionaries themselves are based in special castra specific to each legion. One particular base, the Castrum Italium, is tucked away in the Alps and administered jointly by the Generalissimus of the Legion and the Rector Indicius of Roman Intelligence. This is regarded by the military as the single most strategic base in the empire; should it fall, Rome would surely follow.
EconomyMain Article: Economy
The empire's economy exhibits the deregulation and minimal subsidization of a laissez-faire capitalist country. However, the extreme intervention of the government in certain markets - like public transit or national defense - is characteristic of state capitalism. On a national level, Rome's markets are dominated by monopolies in sparse competition while, locally, small businesses flourish on their social advantage in retail.
The Banca Romanae estimates that Rome's GDP is 5.136 Trillion Dn ($256.8 Trillion), the highest on Earth (38% of global GDP). Rome's GDP per capita, 2400 Dn, is also higher than any other country. However, it should be noted that per capita GDP does not necessarily reflect the median or minimum incomes of residents and citizens. Inflating average measures of wealth is the prominent share of Roman capital held by disgustingly rich business magnates and patricians.
Rome is the greatest exporter and fourth largest importer of visible goods, trading double what Mongolia trades on the international market. Its current account recently ran a 26.8 billion Dn ($1.34 trillion) surplus sustained by visible exports. Commercial partners by percentage are Maya 34%, Japan 28%, Mongolia 17%, Inca 11%, and Nord 6%. The federal government's financial office, the Fiscus, is the highest credit rated organized body or person. It has not reneged on a debt for over 2000 years. Even in times of turmoil such as civil war, someone claimed and payed the federal debt.
The modern economy is 38.5% private activity, 41.2% federal government, and 20.3% provincial government. Meanwhile, a postindustrial economy is indicated by the country's small manufacturing and labor sectors (14%), and large (86%) service sector. The reason for this is that labor intensive jobs can be replaced by automated workers needing one technician where a thousand workers were once necessary. Sectors like agriculture account for a mere 0.01% of the labor force, as farming is nearly totally automated. The state's agricultural output is still 14.1 billion Dn ($705 billion). However, Rome has a balanced economy where no single type of job accounts for a disproportionate amount of economic activity. This protects the economy from long-term shortfalls in particular sectors that can result from changes in the structure of the economy.
A recession of sorts was entered in 1998 but unemployment has yet to exceed 41 million unemployed. Subtract cyclical unemployment to see that Rome's natural rate of unemployment fluctuates around 1-1.6%. However, unemployment protection is almost non-existent. The federal government only assists in the search for new jobs, by facilitating communication. General unemployment benefits have never been offered in the history of the Roman Empire. Also, unlike the former platonic socialist countries, worker's unions are absolutely illegal. There are federal regulations that force guilds to provide a high minimum wage and a safe, unabusive work environment for their workers, but there is nothing in the way of health benefits or of allowances for worker strikes. However, severance pay is very large by government law and every Roman worker can expect no less than 35 days of paid vacation. Certain institutions such as federal buildings and schools are not allowed to offer so many holidays, but still offer about 20 days. With low regulation, no unions, high minimum wage, and no unemployment benefits, Rome's voluntary unemployment rate is almost the lowest in the world.
Income and Human Development
Data collected by the Imperial Census Bureau has calculated a per capita GDP of 2400 Dn, unmatched by any other country at any point in history. A more meaningful quantity, the median pre-tax income of a Roman male, is equal to 2108 Dn ($105,400). This marginally beats Japan, Rome's closest financial competitor. Taxes under the Senate are third highest in the world, after the Maya and the Japanese. But unlike other countries, income taxes are proportional across all levels of society. Presently, Roman citizens give their government 32% of earnings so the median wealth of a Roman will be much higher than his more strongly taxed neighbours.
However, Roman society suffers from an income inequality deeply ingrained into its history and class system. The top 10% of earners control about 65% of the empire's wealth - the top 1% alone more than 44%. Still, a Roman citizen has an incredibly high standard of living compared with residents of other states. Every one of them has access to liberal amounts of food, water, electricity, living space and can afford telescreens, cars, computers, books, entertainment and vacations in the plural. Non-citizens are not so fortunate.
While 15.5% of citizens live below the imperial poverty line, they would not be considered poor by anyone else's standards of poverty. The minimum hourly wage for a Roman is 3 HS ($37.50) which, with an 8 hour work-day, and 220 days of work is a yearly income of 1320 Dn ($66,000). Such earnings would be considered meager for a Roman but is well beyond what the poor non-citizens enjoy. Many of the latter do not even live on an income, sustaining themselves on subsistence farming, while those who are part of urban society can expect 400 or 500 Dn a year if they are fortunate to even hold a steady profession. Their poverty may not reach the lows of subjugated nations elsewhere but theirs is not a lifestyle that could be envied.
Unsurprisingly, the empire's gender gap is enormous. 75% of women who reported working in the year of the last census earned less than 1000 Dn that year. Women are subject to the same minimum hourly wage as men so their lower income comes from a lack of work hours - a social disparity rather than legal inequality. Regularly working females tend to hold jobs for which men are less suited, e.g. designing women's clothes, or men consider degrading to their gender, e.g. prostitution. Other jobs typically held only by females will place them underneath men, like the position of secretary, or keep them by the side of a businessman or politician. This reflects the perception Romans possess of distinct gender roles in society.
For both genders, work can only begin at the age of 16, when boys receive their toga virilis (toga of manhood), and children can acquire citizenship. There is no legal or customary end to a Roman's work life. Retirement is as rare an occurance in modern as it was in ancient Roman society. Only those who are debilitated by a condition, as most of the elderly were before medicine caught up to life expectancy, retire from their careers. The Latin tongue does not even have a term which exclusively means retirement.
Rome's economic development is the bar by which other states measure their own. Not one Roman citizen has starved to death from poverty for centuries. Homeless people are unheard of outside the colonies and the lex doma omni has given citizens the option to take low-interest loans so long as that money goes toward buying a house. When citizens or corporations lacked the means to support themselves the Senate's first action for centuries has been to offer low-interest loans. This policy of microfinancing poverty reduces public dependence on hand-outs and bail-outs while still mitigating the short-term damage from widespread private bankruptcies.
Federal expenditure is largely allocated toward developing infrastructure that supports Roman citizens. Structures with which the Senate and emperor are involved include viae (roads), aquae (aqueducts), cloacae (sewers), vehiculae (public transport), teleloquum (communications), and basilicae (public buildings). Roman highways are known for providing thousands of years of use with little maintenance. The empire's communication network is supported by 1,289 satellites and hundreds of thousands of miles of fiber optic cables.
The empire benefits from two millennia of infrastructural development that has not been marked by periods of decay or destruction. Roads built in the 5th century are still used today while protocols that have served for centuries continue to council policy-makers facing modern problems. The Senate is deeply involved in most large scale construction projects, providing commodities such as transportation and sewer access by directly paying large construction guilds (curatores) for their development. This gives Rome unparalleled infrastructure.
Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic and that idiom is evident in the technological innovations of the Imperium. Its technology level is vastly superior to OTL and to its neighbouring states, none of whom could understand most Roman devices if one were in their hands. The barrier to their comprehension is as simple to point toward as it is intrisically complicated: nanotechnology. The science of the very, very small allows Romans to accomplish incredible feats in medical, military and material technologies of which no civilization has ever been capable. They can, despite insufficient knowledge in chemistry, create an even greater variety of compounds than Maya chemical engineers.
One factor in Rome's incredible technology level is its 160 year old computer industry. A hundred years ahead of OTL, the Romans have invented intricate electronics and robotics. Standard handheld devices made in Roman factories are more powerful than supercomputers in other countries and their principles of computation use science that has only been applied by others on limited scales. One portable wireless device available in Parisium has a clockspeed equivalent to 3.87x1018 operations per second (exascale computing), 350 TB holographic storage, display resolution finer than a human eye can differentiate pixels, 20 megapixel camera, and a nanotube casing fitted for maximum durability. This is typical for consumer electronics in the Imperium.
The world's most powerful supercomputer is hidden deep within the Castrum Italium complex in the Alps. The name of both the computer and its functioning artificial intelligence is Gabriel. Completed in 1988, Gabriel was designated the first self-aware inorganic machine only 4 years later. After being programmed to follow Latin vocabulary and syntax, as well as being given rudimentary semantic information concerning this vocabulary (with denotations as well as connotations of words), Gabriel became the hardware for the simulation of intelligence - the culmination of decades of progress in learning algorithms and knowledge representation. The success of these projects was verified by a battery of intelligence tests for reasoning and conversation skills.
His "brain" is a 3 million yottahertz-equivalent array of quantum processors with 0.76 zottabytes of RAM spread across millions of units for short-term memory. The primary hardware is stored in a 2.9 million cc container but the intelligence itself is sustained by the interconnection of 19,000 trillion programs running together, each simulating one neuron. Gabriel's purpose is to push the limits of artificial intelligence and advise Rome's military high command in strategic calculations in the same capacity as human military advisers.
Early computers were limited to direct channels for communication, where data flowed continuously between connected computers. In the 1890's, a supercomputer near Mediolanum and a small terminal in Rome were linked over existing telecommunications by exchangings data in packets. This method of packet switching ensured a reliable flow of data over the network. This connection became permanent and was eventually supplemented by a similar internetworking of hundreds of magisterial and military computers across the Roman world.
Some engineers operating this early network of networks offered the protocols for linking computer networks to academic institutes such as the Imperial Academy of Science and the University in Rome. From there, academics started connecting their private computers. In 1914, the University administration instituted universal protocols for all networks of academic computer networks. Access to this single network of networks was offered to students attending all connected universities and academies. Once this inter-network had reached tens of millions of users, some senators caught on to the idea and started along the path to globalizing this system. Ultimately, the result was the Cratis Imperis, popularly called the Cratis, a global network of networks using the same data relay protocol for communication.
Accessing the modern Cratis requires registry onto a computer using one's ID code at an online route of access. Anonymity is impossible on the Cratis since every action is done under an ID code registered to the system and easily verifiable by crativigiles (online police). The first thing that will greet most people accessing the Cratis is a simple page with an input bar accepting text and hypertext linking to specific domains. Any specific domain is represented online by a name in Latin. For example, the most impressive domain is the state run Apotheca, a vast repository of knowledge covering billions of subjects. This can be accessed by simply writing "Apotheca" into the input or search bar, or - since this particular domain is deemed important - by activating its hyperlink on the front page of the Cratis. Specific pages within a domain have their own names in a form such as "Apotheca|Latin", which would be the entry in that database on "Latin". Most domains are less simple than the Apotheca but every page is similarly representable by a combination of Latin letters, numerals and other symbols.
Unclaimed domain names can be created after purchasing the domain directly from the government for 10 Cn. Once purchased, the domain is owned by its buyer who may sell it as his own property. Such transactions are made through the Ministry of Communication.
Every watt of power generated in the public sector of the Roman Empire comes from either renewable or nuclear resources. The Census of 1997 calculated that year's statistics as: 15.37 kW per citizen; 588,329.5 TW-h for the entire year, 18% coming from orbital solar satellites, 31% from hydroelectric dams, 47% from nuclear fusion and the last 4% from other renewable sources (wind, geothermal, wave, etc.). These numbers do not reflect anything other than energy production in publicly available power generators on Earth, ignoring private generators, military-industrial installations, research projects, and extraterrestrial facilities.
Electricity wasted as heat is reduced by restricting medium or long distance transport to superconductor power lines and by not using thermal engine type power plants.
A major industrial energy cost is urban climate control, which has existed in major cities for the past twenty years. Cities with a population above 1-2 million people make use of an extensive climate control system to regulate temperature, precipitation and air quality. Meanwhile, animal life is restricted by natural and artificial means to permit eagles, falcons and domesticated mammals and eliminate rodents, insects and unwanted birds. Urban temperature is kept from 0 to 25 degrees Celsius by powerful heating and cooling stations built seamlessly into the city and below its streets. The city of Rome receives special treatment in this regard as there are satellites in tundra orbits above Europe that reflect additional sunlight onto the city during the day, giving it warm Spring temperatures all year round. Weather control by cloud seeding keeps rainfall in the countryside and softens disasters like tornadoes and hurricanes to more manageable scales.
Autokinetici (cars), or autoki, are class-oriented possessions, with specific designs common to certain strata of society. Most lower class Plebeians do not own a personal vehicle, using the empire's extensive public transit system. On the opposite end of the spectrum, patricians may own multiple luxury vehicles driven by autonomous chauffeurs. Cars are powered almost exclusively by onboard batteries that last days. Since vehicles larger than a bicycle are not allowed in city limits from 7 am to 9 pm, the state has always had a way to store cars while their owners visit a city. Recently, the government built massive storage towers a few kilometers from major cities to replace the public parking lots that were used in centuries past that themselves replaced massive public stables. These parking towers are reachable by public transit from nearby cities and can usually hold between 10,000 to a million cars at 10,000 per tower. The towers are very efficient in regards to space, extending several hundred meters underground (or aboveground) and using lifts to arrange the cars in racks.
Metropolitan areas with over 200,000 people have underground rail lines stretching beneath city streets. In many cases, tracks criss-cross in a meshwork of 1 km sided squares, a station at each vertex. Between most cities short distance maglev trains run underneath or alongside the highways. For longer distances high-speed maglev trains transport passengers several times a day in time periods that are impossible by other methods of travel. Several examples of these are the Transatlantic Highway and Circummediterranean Rail, that travel at 4570 and 2680 kph respectively. Furthermore, every province has at least one major airport to satisfy long-distance and intercontinental travel.
Costs for public transport are extremely low in the Roman Empire. Any Roman citizen can buy a monthly transit pass for themselves, a programmable chip that can be located in an object of their choice, at the cost of 7 Dn for the year. This provides unlimited travel on underground and light rails in cities and buses in towns and villages. High-speed train tickets cost between 2 and 10 Dn but a transatlantic ticket will lighten your wallet 12 denarii. Plane tickets are from 14 Dn, Neapolis to Parisium, to 34 Dn, Constantinople to Halorium, Columbia. Ships are rarely used for transit except as part of a short-distance ferry service. These are usually very low cost (1-2 As) and require upfront payment in order to use. However, thousands of Roman cruise ships travel the world offering high price vacations for the leisure of wealthy and average citizens.
The Interprovincial Highway System is a global network of roads linking the entire Imperium Romanum. The network spans over 843,580 km of block and paved roads called viae. The quality of viae is such that many are in working condition after a thousand years. The entire system, over the centuries, has an estimated 240 billion Dn ($12 trillion US) construction cost and has needed minimal maintenance making it one of the largest construction projects in human history before the megaprojects of modern Rome.
In the last century, Rome has proved its prowess as a civilization by engaging in monumental, even astronomical scale construction projects that dwarf anything else in history. Without even including Rome's renovations of the Great Pyramids of Memphis or of the Parthenon, a large list of costly programs can be made:
|1||Magneuropa||geological segregation of the Mediterranean Sea||1991||700 billion Dn|
|2||Midas Program||establishing mines on non-planetary bodies||1998||590 billion Dn|
|3||Portantia Network||deploying an interplanetary transport system||1989||345 billion Dn|
|4||Seraphim Network||deploying 160 laser weapon satellites||1979||320 billion Dn|
|5||Ares Program||mission to establish a manned Martian colony||1970||31 billion Dn|
|6||Artemis Program||mission to establish a manned lunar colony||1946||4.6 billion Dn|
In the above table, denarii (Dn) are in their 2753 AUC value which are each equivalent to $50 US.
The population of the Imperium Romanum is estimated to be 2,141,600,000. Of these residents, 1.8 billion are civitatem Romanum, citizens of the Imperium Romanum. Citizenship is vital for living in the empire, exempting one from the poll tax, allowing one to join the army as a legionary rather than a guard, confering inalienable rights like health care and welfare, and permitting appeals to a Praetor during litigation. It also grants voting rights at the age of 16 and allows someone to run for political posts according to their social class.
While the Imperium Romanum is the second most populous country in the world, after the Mongol World Empire, it is the second least densely populated one behind the United Chiefdoms of Columbia. It owes the latter to its great size, exceeding every other country by a large margin. The average population density is very small, but a lot of the population is concentrated in urban areas. The urbanization rate is about 85%. However, cities are thinly populated compared to other countries due to the absence of skyscrapers. Unlike other countries, the borders of Roman cities are very clearly delineated by large stone or metal walls. Currently about 1208 cities have populations over 100,000 people, an additional 83 are inhabited by over a million people and of that 29 are classified as global cities, i.e. over two million residents. Of the 30 most populated metropolitan areas in the world, 14 are officially under Roman hegemony.
The empire had rapid population growth over the last two centuries. Today, it shows no sign of slowing down. The root of this boon is the country's high fertility rate, higher than any other place in the world, at a national average of 4.8 births per women. This is well above the replacement rate of 1.9 and adds significantly to the 2.9% aggregate population growth. However, immigration, the only source of non-natural growth, is severely limited by the Roman Constitution. Numerous bureaucratic hoops stand between a peregrini and entry into the state to live. Citizenship is even more difficult and costly to acquire. Therefore, most of the country's growth is natural, with 83.5 million more births than deaths each year. Net migration into the empire only accounts for 430,000 new inhabitants a year, most of whom will leave the country within a year or two. The retention rate of immigrants to the empire is low in spite of the desirability of a Roman lifestyle.
- Total Population: 2,140,600,000 inhabitants
- Percentage of world population: 18.5% (1/6th)
- Citizenship: 1,819,000,000 citizens (85%)
- Population density: 44.96 inhb/km²
- Population growth: 2.9% (62.1 million people per year)
- Urbanization rate: 85%
Standards for health in the Roman world, in civilized regions especially, are nearly the same as the world leader in health - Tawatinsuyu. All manner of diseases are treatable. Victims of senile dementia can be cleansed of plaque around their neurons, strokes can be prevented by safely unblocking arteries, cancer is curable with nanite therapy and failing organs can be replaced with synthetic or cloned prosthetics. Only long-term conditions like diabetes are limited to treatment without curative procedures. Altogether, the mortality rate attributable to disease has become insignificant among Rome's citizens.
Even without medicine, Romans are part of a healthy society. Food is naturally grown - with no artificial additives, preservatives, drugs or pesticides at any stage of its production - in a manner that used to come at great cost to potential productivity. Nowadays, genetically modified crops and animals confer the same advantages as drugs and chemicals could offer to the agricultural industry but without side effects to consumers.
The lifestyle of your average citizen is widely recognized as being the healthiest lifestyle in the world - Rome's only health advantage over the Inca. Regardless of wealth, Romans will eat fish or other white meat on a weekly basis while red meats are reserved for dinner parties that may happen anywhere from once to five times a week, depending on your position in society. Nuts, vegetables and bread are staples of a Roman's diet, eaten as meals or snacks almost constantly. Natural condiments such as garum, tomato sauce or pepper add taste without the use of artificial sweeteners or colors.
By arbitrary standards [those of Our Timeline], nearly 2.1% of citizens could be classified as obese - e.g. weigh over 100 kg when 6 ft tall - and 4.3% of the population (non-citizens included) could be called underweight or malnourished - e.g. weigh under 62 kg when 6 ft tall. These standards would declare only 6.4% of residents as living at an unhealthy weight. The same standards would say that 20.7% of male citizens and 64.9% of female citizens could be classified as overweight. The disproportionate number of women carrying more weight than some societies might consider normal is attributable to the Roman preference for voluptuous female bodies, accentuating the statistically desired 7:10 waist-to-hip ratio. In the 1993 public census, where detailed health exams were given to every citizen, the average waist size for woman was 30.5in and average hip size was 41in. Census data across the centuries shows little variety on this matter.
A contributing factor to the health of Romans is that the Senate offers free healthcare to children of citizens before they acquire their citizenship and elder citizens above 70 years of age. Literally any medical demands, from dentist check-ups to eye exams are paid from the federal treasury. On a per capita level, this costs the Senate about $1,100 for children and $11,400 for seniors, though wealthier seniors usually opt out of free healthcare out of social pressure or moral obligation. Outside these demographics, anyone can request a low interest loan from the government to afford medical treatment as has been done for the entire existence of the Constitution which guarantees the availability of necessary medicine for citizens.
The ability to consent for financial transactions and sexual intercourse is gained with citizenship, or when that is not forthcoming, at the age of eighteen. The average child-bearing ages are 20 for women and 23 for men. The notion of teenage pregnancy is not distinguished from adult pregnancy and it is hardly uncommon for girls in the 16 to 19 range to bear children. According to the last census, 89.7% of teenagers with children had the baby in the bounds of legal matrimony. People seeking abortion will have to seek the procedure outside the empire as it is a major crime, equivalent to first-degree murder, for a Roman doctor to terminate a pregnancy once a neural tube is recognizable in the foetus (usually in the 2nd month of pregnancy). Unlike other countries, the Roman Empire never experienced a movement to legalize abortion. Still, contraception is readily available as a pill or physical counter-measure, contributing to the facility of prostitution, a completely legal, if disreputable, profession. The infamy of prostitution has not stopped the Senate from offering health and wage coverage in the event one becomes pregnant or from directly running public brothels.
While Roman views on sexuality are incredibly liberal, having resisted the oncoming of Christian values, there is nothing in the empire recognizable as a strip club or pornography. However, a great deal of literature and art shamelessly portrays nudity and sex, and the walls of brothels tend to be covered in mosaics and paintings with a graphic design. These features simply help set the atmosphere.
Switching topics, therapeutic cloning is an especially interesting aspect of Roman medicine. It is a technique used to grow new organs for transplants and provide stem cells for regenerative therapy. Due to a law banning the retrieval of embryonic stem cells when endangering the baby, Roman scientists had a great deal of pressure to devise alternatives. Without foreign help, the process was improved to a marketable level by 1949. Today, injuries that cause the loss or damage of body parts, including organs, can be easily repaired by this process, as can permanent tissue damage such as tar build-up in the lungs and sensory deterioration of the eyes and ears. The one thing that remains irreparable is severe spinal cord injury.
In spite of Rome's monumental healthcare system, indigenous people and foreigners are not covered. Therefore, certain communities in Africa and Columbia, including most of Swahilium, experience shocking levels of poverty that give them health averages far below the rest of the Roman Empire. Since they are non-citizens, the federal government cares very little about helping them and even less sympathy is given by citizens.
- Life expectancy: 95.5 years
- by Gender
- Men: 92.1 years
- Women: 99.4 years
- by Class
- Patrician: 108 years
- Equestrian: 101 years
- Middle Plebeian: 98 years
- Lower Plebeian: 91 years
- Indigeni: 68 years
- by Gender
- Infant mortality rate: 1.2 per thousand births
- Fertility rate: 4.8 births per woman
A so-called Roman education is desired around the globe. Rome is the home of what is globally known as the imperial education system, copied all across Europe, Africa and Asia. Progress in this system comes in stages: first, a lower curriculum covers the ages of 2 to 17 then a higher curriculum instructs students on the necessary material for their chosen employment.
Learning at a grammaticus (primary school), public school students will learn Roman history, basic geography, arithmetic, algebra, geometry, logic, basic chemistry, mechanics, electrostatics, music, ethics, cellular biology, basic micro and macro economics, epistemology and Latin reading, writing and literary analysis. Room is left in a student's timetable to attend advanced courses calculus, international economics, Roman politics, anatomy, modern physics, industrial chemistry, biochemistry, metaphysics, manual work or other languages once they reach the age of 15. These are offered on a voluntary basis, to satisfy interested students. There is no official enrollment in advanced classes and no penalty for opting not to attend any of them.
From age two to age ten, children are given a purely physical and musical education. Nearly every ten year old is fluent in at least two instruments and could run 12 miles in one sitting. The designers of this system sought to avoid building a nation of weight-lifters or of softened souls and so a certain balance was struck. Exposure to academic topics is provided at this time but education of that kind is not compulsory until age eleven.
A curriculum is arranged in 6-9 week terms separated by three week vacations. A term is closed by testing students' knowledge of the compulsory material learned that term. Tests for the advanced courses can be taken anytime during the last two years of the lower curriculum. The results of any tests taken by a studen are merely used to show the school which area of higher education, if any, they should encourage for the particular student. Marks for compulsory courses are also used to distribute students evenly by aptitude across the different higher schools. There are no strict entry criteria and most students get into places of their choice.
Higher education is done in either academiae (academies) or universales (universities), whether one wants to receive an Academy Degree and become a Doctor (PhD) or not respectively. While attending a grammaticus is compulsory for all citizens, higher education can be avoided in order to take an apprenticeship in manual work.
At this level, courses are distinguished into the classical branches of philosophy. Graduating as a doctor in one's field is not only prestigious but beneficial for one's career as well. Modern lawyers, senators, medical doctors, scientists, generals and economists are almost unanimously doctores. There's no distinct school system for medicine or law as these already have academies like other subjects.
- Citizens: 99.999%
- Adult non-citizens: 83.7%
- Degrees (citizens over 30):
- Diploma: 99.999%
- Universal Degree: 67.294%
- Academy Degree: 7.105%
In contrast to the more populous Mongolian China, the Roman Empire has a diverse population of citizens. Over twenty broadly distinct nations are recognized by the Senate: Roman, Greek, Egyptian, Phoenician, Syrian, Numidian, Gallic, Germanic, Hebrew, Malian, Swahili, Arab, Ghaznavid, Indian, Sinhalese, North Columbian, South Columbian, Maya, Inca and Serese. Some merely come from immigrant exclaves spread across the empire while others are established Mediterranean or African cultures that have been dealt with for centuries.
Ancient ethnicities like the Dacians, Hispanians or Etruscans were long ago assimilated into the monolithic Roman nation while others like the Ionians, Mauretanians, Berbers, Macedonians, Picts or distinct Germans have blurred into major regional ethnic groups. In the colonies, the lack of recognition for diversities is largely due to laziness mixed with racism of bureaucrats. These 20 races are the only options on the Public Census.
Major cultural and ethnic divisions mark the boundaries of the empire's forty Foederatae. Each cultural group is governed by its own consul who brings their unique interests into deliberations of the Senate's upper house. The attention given to recognizing populous nations was a skill learned by the government out of habit. It is a simple, if slightly humbling, means of pleasing people and keeping them satisfied with only their bread and circuses. Now it is part of the Roman way of dealing with a diverse population.
Greek is the largest, homogenous non-Roman ethnic group, dominating Greece, Moesia and Anatolia and found in the most widespread network of colonial populations. Phoenicians and Numidians are the largest groups of African ethnicities in the world, having spearheaded the Roman cultural advance into Sub-Saharan Africa. They have firmly supplanted a large number of former tribes across almost a quarter of Roman Africa. In the east, the Egyptians, Syrians and Arabs have stayed in their respective regions, showing little interest as a culture to spread like their Greek, Hebrew or Italian brothers.
The largest group of indigineous ethnicities outside the Mediterranean are the South Asians - broadly split into the Islamic Ghaznavids and Hindu Indians. Over the four hundred years of Roman rule, India has found its people encroached upon by Mediterranean nations, forcing many into what is now part of the Mongol Empire and causing many to die of neglect during outbreaks of disease and famine while Roman citizens prospered.
Notably absent from any Roman list of ethnic groups are the Japanese. Their government outlaws the emigration of its citizens, punishing them with exile, making it rare to find a Japanese doing anything more than visiting outside the home islands. Only about 1-2 million are in the Roman Empire at once, the majority working their on business while others came to find a life outside Japan.
Unsurprisingly, the dominant ethnicity is Italian - those original Roman or other Socii peoples who are virtually indistinguishable from one another. No other race visually represents the empire better than the Italians. Their image alone evokes strong sentiments, whether feelings of reverence, fear or hate.
- Total: 2.14 billion people
- Roman: 1.415 billion citizens (66.0%)
- Italian:' 843 million
- Gallic:' 198 million
- Graeco-Roman:' 101 million
- Romano-German:' 91 million
- Coptic Roman:' 78 million
- Black Roman:' 66 million
- Red Roman:' 32 million
- Hebrew Roman:' 6 million
- Indian: 128 million people (6.0%)
- Greek: 122 million citizens (5.7%)
- Numidian: 109.1 million citizens (5.1%)
- Hebrew: 83.5 million citizens (3.9%)
- Germanic/Muscovite: 68.5 million people (3.2%)
- Bantu/Swahili: 64 million people (3.0%)
- Egyptian: 60 million citizens (2.8%)
- Inca: 21 million people (1.0%)
- Serese: 17.1 million people (0.8%)
- Columbian: 17.1 million people (0.8%)
- Maya: 15 million people (0.7%)
- Arab: 12.8 million people (0.6%)
- Nordic: 4 million people (0.18%)
- Japanese: 2 million people (0.09%)
- Other: 4 million people (0.18%)
ReligionAs Roman emperors represent the Catholic Church, citizens of the empire almost exclusively practice some variant of this sole sect of Orthodox Christianity. Diversity in the Ecclesia Catholica was instituted in the Church's early years to magnify retention of Christians across cultures. For example, Egyptians, Nubians and Aksumites practice the Coptic liturgy while most of Europe is under the Latin liturgy, with the exception of Greece.
Nothing in Catholic dogma varies among the liturgies but facets of religious practice such as language, prayers, art, architecture and symbolism differ. Sometimes, as in the case of India, the distinctions of a liturgy were a major factor in the conversion of an entire culture.
Despite Christianity's prevalence and unity with the state, freedom of religion is guaranteed by the Constitution. In particular, the Jews are highly regarded in Roman society, possessing a significant portion of the banking and investment industries due to a historic monopoly on charging interest. Their religion is granted specific benefits such as prominence in the bureaucracy of Judaea, support for major synagogues and reception of citizenship at an early period in Roman history. The other major religion, Islam, has a strong presence in Arabia and India, with the province of Palestine boasting the largest Sunni population in the world.
Foreign and small domestic religions exist as well, Ahauism and Hinduism being two of the most significant examples. The latter has seen dwindling membership over the past four centuries of imperial rule, with many Indians already converted to Islam and many others emigrating or converting to Abrahamic faiths over time. The empire also boasts one of the largest populations of atheists in the world, spread thinly among the provinces. Irreligious people are rare in developed countries, mostly found in the former socialist states such as Scandinavia. Rome's unusually high number of atheists is likely attributable to the Humanist movement, which sparked the few atheist movements in the nation's history.
- Christianity: 1,917,440,000 Christians (89.6%)
- Catholicism: 1,900,320,000 Catholics (88.8%)
- Roman Liturgy:' 56% of Catholics
- Hellenic Liturgy:' 15% of Catholics
- Coptic Liturgy:' 11% of Catholics
- Punic Liturgy:' 8% of Catholics
- Indian Liturgy:' 6% of Catholics
- Hebrew Liturgy:' 4% of Catholics
- African Liturgy:' 3% of Catholics
- Arianism: 16,020,000 Arians (0.75%)
- Other: 0.08%
- Catholicism: 1,900,320,000 Catholics (88.8%)
- Judaism: 77,400,000 Jews (3.6%)
- Hinduism: 40,660,000 Hindus (1.9%)
- Islam: 34,240,000 Muslims (1.6%)
- Shi'ah: 0.9%
- Sunni: 0.7%
- Animism: 32,100,000 animists (1.5%)
- Irreligion: 17,120,000 irreligious people (0.8%)
- Agnosticism: 0.4%
- Anti-religion: 0.1%
- Ahauism: 10,700,000 people (0.5%)
- Wiraqutra: 8,560,000 people (0.4%)
- Druidism: 2,000,000 people (0.09%)
- Shinto: 800,000 people (0.04%)
Latin is de jure the Imperium Romanum's national language, representing its culture, its people and its influence throughout the world. Latin is required learning by law in all schools within the empire's borders and thus almost universally understand within the limites of Rome. Re-education programs in Africa, Columbia and India focus solely on the instruction of Latin as its understanding is believed to be the first step towards civilizing their region. Native African and Columbian dialects are discouraged by outlawing them as subjects in primary schools but the dialects of the former, namely Bantu and Swahili, are the religious tongue of the African liturgy.
The de facto national tongue of the empire is the Hellenic language, Greek, spoken by about 39% of residents. Not an international language like Latin, nor required material in schools, Greek is nonetheless emphasized as a language of high culture and intelligence. Being able to speak proficient Greek is a distinction in Roman society (a very small number of non-Greeks can speak it well). Another three major imperial languages are Pheonician, a unified language since the late 1400's, Coptic, a popular tongue in Africa, and Aramaic, the standard language of most Judaeans and Jews even before the 6th century when it superseded Hebrew.
Certain regional languages are prominent within their own domain. Arabic has flourished as a local tongue in the provinces of Arabia and Palestina while the British Isles and Gaul have enshrined Brythonnic as their commercial and bureaucratic language.
Certain languages also hold local significance in certain provinces. Palestina and Arabia use Arabic as their language of business and politics, and Caledonia, Cambria, Hibernia and Magna Britannia all make use of Brythonnic in their laws and institutions. Other ancient language groups like Gaelic, Dacian, Syrian and others have gone extinct, remaining alive only as a dead language learned by students and academics.
Some international languages have gained a foothold for the purposes of polite communication and business. Quechua, a major medical language, is the most widely spoken, with nearly 45 million speakers, though Norse, Japanese, Nahuatl and Mandarin are not excessively far behind.
- Latin: 2.12 billion (99%)
- Greek: 835 million (39%)
- Coptic: 235 million (11%)
- Brythonnic: 221 million (10.3%)
- Phoenician: 203 million (9.5%)
- Aramaic: 111 million (5.2%)
- Quechua: 45 million (2.1%)
- Nahuatl: 34 million (1.6%)
- Japanese: 32 million (1.5%)
- Hebrew: 28 million (1.3%)
- Mandarin: 26 million (1.2%)
- Arabic: 19 million (0.9%)
- Norse: 15 million (0.7%)
- Indian Dialects: 118 million (5.5%)
- Germanic Dialects: 88 million (4.1%)
- African Dialects: 62 million (2.9%)
- Columbian Dialects: 17 million (0.8%)
- Other: 32 million (1.5%)
Roman society has a strict national stratification dating to its ancient Republican era called the ordones.
Patricians, fathers of Italy, are the apogee of Roman citizenship. Typically wealthy and influential, they have the most freedom to engage themselves in politics and bureaucratic affairs. Thus they have the most control in the Roman Empire, often portrayed - if somewhat unjustly - as subjugating the other orders of society. The greatest of patricians are members of the imperial family, the immediate relatives of the Augustus and Augusta along with the children of previous emperors of their dynasty. The modern imperial family counts 177 members.
Farther down the social ladder are the Equites (Equestrians), a rich mercantile class whose members manage a great part of Rome's economy. Below them are the Plebeians or, simply Plebs, who can be split into two orders according to their wealth: the Upper-Plebeian order and Lower-Plebeian order.
Upper Plebs are the empire's middle class, earning a decent living but lacking the privileges of the upper classes. They represent your average citizens, making up the majority of the population. Lower Plebs are the work force, laborers who do jobs no one wants but everyone needs. Plebeians receive good benefits from the government to compensate for their reduced privileges and are more well-off than the lower classes citizens of other countries.
Unofficially, there are also Peregrini (foreigners), non-citizens like Maya or Japanese expatriots or visitors. They have no legal rights under Roman law, as their home countries are expected to care for them even if they have no home. Nevertheless, they often remain in Rome with the hopes of one day gaining citizenship.
The final stratum is the lowest order who, in addition to receiving almost no government benefits, is heavily looked down upon by the rest of society. They are the Indigeni, who are the native Africans, Columbians, and, in some places, Germans, who have been conquered by Rome. Most citizens view them as inferior to Mediterranean races and, consequently, most of the country's racism is directed at them. Slavery was abolished in the empire in 1449 with the proclamation of universal human rights, freeing many of these subjugated people.
- Patrician Order: 6.3 million nobles (0.29%)
- Equestrian Order: 156.9 million equestrian (7.33%)
- Upper-Plebeian Order: 1,376 million plebs (64.29%)
- Lower-Plebeian Order: 331 million plebs (15.47%)
- Indigeni: 261.1 million natives (12.2%)
- Peregrini: 59.9 million foreigners (2.8%)
Main Article: Culture
Imperial culture reflects the diversity of its population. Regarded as a melting pot of ethnicities by homogenous countries like Japan and the Caliphate, Rome is tolerant and respectful of the majority of cultures within its empire, encouraging some of their activities through socio-economic measures. No other country treats as large a number of groups with care and equality as does the empire. Even the bureaucracy and local elites reflect the regional distinctiveness of the population, allowing a degree of cultural independence that goes beyond mere appearances into religious and political recognition.
Birthplace of some of humanity's greatest minds, the empire is a mecca of high culture and intellectualism. For millennia, it was a model country, emulated by others in the arts and sciences, and with philosophies and politics getting copied around the globe. Romans are trend setters for the modern world as they were for the ancient one. A Roman who visits a foreign land will undoubtedly be treated with dignity and respect by the locals and visitors in the Imperium are even more respectful of its ways. Mistreatment of Romans abroad is only done by the unbalanced or vengeful, no one else would dare disrespect a Roman citizen.
A principle which underlies Rome's cultural achievements is Libertas (Freedom). Freedom of movement within the country, freedom to share ideas and customs and freedom to seek wealth. The Senate hardly limits these liberties of the people with law, force or even propaganda. Furthermore, inside the Imperium's borders for the last 2,000 years has been a stability unseen at any other time or place, a true Pax Romana. Safety and liberty are no less immanent as factors today, driving Rome ever more into the future.
In the 600's, painting became the dominant mode of artistic expression in the Roman Empire, superseding (but not replacing) the earlier art of mosaics. Within a few centuries, the Veritamilis style, which sought to create art that looked as realistic as possible, emerged as the popular form of painting. Even with today's photography, the art of painting realistic images is far from dying out. Emperors are especially patrons of this art. For instance, for over a thousand years it has been customary for a Caesar to commission great works of art depicting major events of his reign, such as scenes of battle or their coronation ceremony. Some emperors, and even members of the nobility, will pay an artist to live with them and occasionally paint scenes either on location or by memory.
Nearly every major city in the empire has at least one art museum, and it is customary for a city to offer another city paintings that depict scenes set in its municipality. This was an idea pioneered by Caesar Magnus II and it has ultimately resulted in most major cities being able to display works of art featuring other major cities. The Imperial Museum of Art in fact has a series of rooms called the Orbis Urbum, which has skyline shots of all 98 provincial capitals. On the opposite side of the building is the 200 meter long Hall of History, which features the finest works of art that depict scenes from Rome's history, including the Capture of Vercingetorix and the Detonation of Michael. Meanwhile, the halls of the Palace of Imperials are lined with the imperial portrait of every Caesar from Octavian to Cicero, leaving out those who only claimed the title Imperator.
Art museums are very popular destinations within Roman cities. The three largest museums of art receive 14 million, nine million and four million visitors each year respectively. Also featured in the art museums are the ever popular Roman sculptures. The art of sculpting is perhaps the greatest product of the Western arts, and definitely one which the Roman Empire made full use of. The Romans, the Greeks and the Egyptians are all very found of creating their sculptures, and cities in areas influenced by all three cultures are dotted with sculptures of many different kinds. The grandest statue in the empire, however, is the Statue of Victory (depicting a Nike, or Angel) in the Neapolitan Bay near Prochyta. Standing on a 60 m pedestal, the Statue alone is 240 m tall. The Statue of Victory is a widely recognized national symbol representing the indomitable spirit and power of the Imperium.
The immensity of Rome's empire and the security that its citizens enjoy necessitates a great deal of effort in both entertaining and informing the public. Until recently, the primary means by which news was spread was the praeconis (heralds). These public-wage scribes stood in major plazas within the cities every day to declare recent news to people walking in the streets, in the manner of giving a speech. Amazingly, this form of reporting was so popular with the Romans that not even personal telescreens could supercede heralds in getting government funding to relay news. It is only in modern times, in the larger cities, that live heralds were replaced with holographic recordings. These holograms look realistic enough that the change is irrelevant to the public. The rich, as always, use personal secretaries to bring them the news. Except in Rome and Carthage, the news given by heralds is relevant only to the city itself, with the exception of major national news. While news of a murder or disaster in Mediolanum will be spread by heralds there, no one elsewhere in the country will hear about it. An interesting case regarding disseminaton of the news is Constantinopolis whose heralds proclaim global economic updates on top of local news.
National and international news is relayed publicly by the Nuntia Imperia, the state-run newspaper. Its main sections are: Ludonus (public events/sports), Artanus (the arts), Peregranus (foreign news), Forum (business), Otianus (leisure/vacation), Mortianus (obituaries), a front page for the daily top story and a dozen other pages for other recent major news. Some cities have newspapers that are published and circulated by rich business owners, but thse differ greatly from the government paper and tend to include the political bias or desired focus of their patron (say on sports). Next to the newspapers and the heralds, the only other sources for news are public announcements by city officials, gossip and, formerly, the radio (a kind of virtual herald).
Mass advertising never developed in the Roman world, leading to a commercial dynamic far removed from OTL. Advertisements of any kind are banned in newspapers, the radio, the movies and telescreens. The only permitted and publicly accepted form of advertising is street signs, though some businesses shrewdly bribe heralds to mention their product in a good light. Nearly all shops abide in distinct market districts in the cities and villages, so business owners rely on signs and their own charisma to attract customers to their stall or shop. Nearly every product is sold by a regional monopoly, or by two or three large businesses, therefore advertising for products is wasteful anyway. Certain kinds of street adverts like electric signs or excessive lighting are outlawed in large cities since people find them to be disruptive and bothersome - especially neon signs.
Imperial society is almost universally regarded as a model for the rest of the world. Not only are its artistic forms and customs copied by billions but its Constitution provided a template for other autocratic republics. Romans are justifiably proud of their international reputation. Global polls by Japan, which queried 10,000 people from each country, found that 65% saw Rome in a positive light while an opposing 32% saw it in a negative one. From these results, it seems that few lack a strong opinion of the empire. An internal census of the empire in 1977, polling its entire body of citizens, showed a 92% approval of their country. Another 5% were completely neutral on the subject and a final 3% believed Romans were harmful to humanity.
Fascisma, or the fervent support of the Roman Empire and its government (Nationalism), is common among citizens. The name is derived from the magisterial fasces, a symbol of reciprocal strength through unity and unity in strength. Romans view their society as a beacon of civilization in a barbaric world. A majority of Romans take this farther. Many citizens and politicians believe all human activity is their empire's business and their state has a duty, as protector of the human race, to intervene as it deems appropriate.
As bigoted as Roman society may appear, the empire has historic ties to human rights and protecting the interests of the human race. Romans were the first advanced civilization to abolish slavery and it was Roman philosophers, building on the ideas of the Greeks, who invented the ethical and legal idea of natural rights. The Romans professed to believe that every person was entitled to specific things: the right to his or her own body, the right to breed, the right to equality among their peers, etc, and that these natural rights are equally held by everyone - regardless of nationality or race - and cannot ever be revoked. No other state on Earth safeguards the rights of human beings as fervently or as broadly as the Imperium Romanum.
Penning the first Constitution in 1191, Romans also pioneered the practice of laying down inalienable rights into an unbreakable code of law. From its inception, Rome's Constitution ensured every Roman citizen: two thirds of his or her income, fair trial by members of his or her own social order, equal representation in the Senate, free education, the ability to afford medical care, the legal right to their citizenship unless justly revocable and the right to the use of one's genetic information. Furthermore, the empire is the only country which offers absolutely free healthcare to the more vulnerable members of its society.
Romanitas (Romanity, or Romanism) is the idea of Roman civilization rather than its political reality. Included among its concepts are the very symbols of the Roman Empire, those things that are identified with the Roman people, military and government. Rome has such a great number of symbols that listing them all is impossible.
The primary symbol of Rome is the formula of the nation, legally standing for the city and empire as well as the Senate and cives. It is most often written as SENATVS POPVLVSQVE ROMANVS (SPQR). One might find the so-called tetragrammaton of Rome on government documents, senatus consulta, public buildings, milestones, monuments and some government officials. Internationally, SPQR evokes thoughts of imperialism and brings forth a fearful respect, causing many people to avoid uttering it - as if they could be struck down for misusing it.
Another major representation of the empire is the Caesar - not as an individual - as an office. No one believes that emperors are deities but the extent to which they are venerated by the people is comparable to the worship of states whose leaders are deified. It is hard to overstate the emperor's importance to Roman society. A national anthem, Deus Caesaro Tege (God Defend the Emperor), is unique to the Caesar and used whenever he involves himself in a public event. And even in casual conversation, Romans refer to a living emperor with phrases like "our Lord, Caesar", "Augustus" or "the father of our nation".
The anthem of the Roman people themselves, used in festivals and at the opening of sports events, is Cantus Arma Virosque (Song of Arms and of Men). The name was taken from the first words of Virgil's Aeneid, and its lyrics from the story itself and the history of the Roman people. The last national anthem is Terra Nostrum (Our Land) which is customarily sung by other countries when they receive Roman dignitaries.
Another major symbol of Romanitas is the Aquila, or Roman Standard - an Eagle. Its visual representation is stitched into all military and civil service uniforms and physically placed on most public buildings, usually with the national formula. Using the eagle as a symbol is exclusively reserved by the Roman Empire. Should a foreign country try to use it they could swiftly expect a serious international incident.
Important symbols of the Roman Empire are internationally recognized, signaling the imperial presence across its entire sphere of influence. Within the empire, no one can go over a day without seeing an SPQR, eagle or wreath in some form. Rome strains itself to display its image and splendor on a global scale. This effort is made easier by the ability to broadcast Roman media into radio and telescreens around the world. In effect, everyone has heard of the Imperium Romanum, the Senate and the Caesar.
Main Article: Philosophy
Romans have engaged in philosophical inquiry ever since the Republic assimilated Hellenic philosophy in the 3rd century BCE. Adopted institutions included the Peripatetic, Eleatic, Stoic, Cynic, Academic and Skeptic schools. The early imperial period saw marked growth of Stoicism, peaking with the publication of an emperor's Meditations. After a period of high Stoic support in the 6th century, Aristotelian science and philosophy took the dominant position in Roman academia. Its sudden blossom is attributed to the extensive use of Aristotelian texts by Archaedavincus in his formulations of engineering principles. While much of Aristotle's physics was ultimately rejected, the Philosopher's ethical, political and metaphysical writings flourished.
Modern Roman philosophy is a strict academic field, the overarching discipline within which the various sciences are practiced. Children are taught Ethica, Vitalogia, Physica or Epistemelogia at the grammaticus (high school) level as part of their philosophical education. Professional philosophers include natural scientists, metaphysicians, ethicists, logicians and mathematicians. Metaphysics is a difficult field due to the density of the subject-matter. Many in the field of ethics are looked to as leaders in the political arena, and, in fact, some of the greatest magistrates in history were prominent in ethics. The nationally recognized structure of philosophy is:
Those who study philosophy per se are work in the field of Logika. Their subject matter is relevant to every domain of Roman philosophy. Academics who restrict themselves to studying the material of the sciences insofar as a science is either theoretical or practical work in Metaphysica. Depending on their specificity, they may work in either Metaphysica Naturalis or Metaphysica Moralis. Typically, scientists of a specific department within one of these domains of philosophy will have some understanding of fundamental metaphysical theses.
The science of Logic is the heart of Roman philosophy. The ancient Aristotelian Logika Syllogistica (Propo-sitional Logic) went out of use after the publication of De Logika in 1218, a book which established the dominance of Logika Attributia (Predicate Logic). Since the invention of symbolic logic by Archaedavincus, the application of logical systems has had the appearance of a sort of verbal mathematics. The symbols and form of Archadavincus' system came from his development of set theory in the 740's.
Roman philosophers view logic as a description of the necessary form of thinking, not simply axiomatic rules for inference and judgement. For this reason, logic is the foundation of Roman philosophy.
Roman metaphysics splits philosophical inquiry into two domains: nature and morals. This division has its roots in Hellenic philosophy. The present framework for all metaphysics was created by Octavius Priscus Regulus and is followed by the majority of philosophers. However, it requires what its few opponents call a 'monstrous leap' in reason and therefore has failed to supercede regional philosophical traditions on an international scale.
Regulus' starting point is that the laws of nature forbid prescriptive truth; the world cannot be other than what it is, therefore, there are no oughts. Even the actions of intelligent beings are causally determined by natural laws. This was called the theoretical truth of the human will. However, Regulus reasoned, people are self-determining as regards their actions in a practical sense - we can only act under the Idea of freedom.
For humans to be free and not free at the same time is a contradiction, unless each is in a different way. The 'monstrous leap' Regulus made to resolve this contradiction was to postulate a separation of the empirical and the non-empirical. Empirical things are comprised of all objects of the senses. The manner in which things are perceived is how things are as appearances (Phenoemena). Objects independent of a perceiver are things as they are in themselves (Eimana) and as perceiver we consider them as they are thought to be in themselves (Noumena). Regulus' Trinity of Existence underlies much of Roman philosophy.
Physics and Ontology respectively study dynamic and static being. Thus ontology examines the nature of space, time, and causation. Meanwhile, physics is distinctly subdivided into:
The physical sciences exhibit a progression from basic Kinematics to Geohistory at the far end. The richest area is certainly mechanics which comprises kinematics, electrodynamics, optics, cymatics and even relativity.
Roman morality is grounded in the principle that all human beings are rational organisms and, by consequence, equal. The fact of universal human equality warrants the prescriptions of Roman ethics - the way they derive an ought statement from a statement of fact. Its most fundamental prescription is the categorical imperative that "Every human should be treated as an end not a means." On this bedrock, all other Roman morals are built.
Duty, to one's fellow man, and intention are essential aspects of moral action. The consequences of actions are not important to Romans but the intention behind actions - as well as the consequences reasonably expected by the agent performing the action - are primary. The consequences of actions, say the Romans, are subject to mere luck in practice and, if taken as a standard of morality, would condemn the morally innocent such as children and the mentally challenged whose intentions are not bad but are unwillfully ignorant of their actions' consequences.
Despite the bigotry of many Romans, they are socially progressive as a people. The first constitution was drafted by the Roman government, the first universal education system was founded in Rome and democracy flowered in the empire as nowhere else. Yet the greatest social advance made by the Romans was the abolition of slavery in 1449. To add weight to this, the institution of slavery was taken down not by mere government action but by a public declaration of universal human rights, which extends to the whole society on a moral level.
By freeing the slaves, Rome established itself as humanity's symbol of progress. It legitimized classic Roman hubris, demonstrating to the country that, like the Greeks before them, they were the protectors of civilization. For all their hypocrisy and disregard for non-citizens, Romans have adequately defended this title.