|Emperor||Augustus the 5th
Royal House: Habsburg
|Caesar`||Constantine the 17th
Royal House: Habsburg
The Habsburg Roman Empire (unofficially known as the Roman Empire) is an elective monarchy. That was first establish in 14 BC, by Augustus Caesar. By 285 AD, the Empire split in two on the orders of Diocletian. Then later, it was united by again Emperor Constantine in 312. Then, it split again into two in 398. During its nineteen hundred years, it was the most powerful empire in Europe, despite setbacks and land losses. Its downfall was because it became very loosely held together and after its loss in the Great War, there was nothing holding it together.
Mojoran rule (POD)
In 460, the new Emperor Mojorian I decides to lead a campaign against the Vandals in order to restore food supplies. After gathering the Roman Navy, they landed 10 miles away from Carthage, the Vandal kingdom's capital. The battle plan was to send half of the army to blockade the wall and half to blockade the sea. They used catapult sea and land to wreck the docks and houses. After one mouth of the siege, Carthage surrenders. After that most of the battles were easy victories, due to the fact that most leaders were caught during the siege. So most of the army fell apart. After the conquest of North Africa, they began plans for the campaign of Spain.
Other achievements are restoring the economy, by minting more gold and laws against forgeries. Restore the Romans trust in money and reorganized food supplies. He also helped and built many aqueducts, baths, churches and forums. The Suebi the inhabitants Spain have become weakened, by the fact that their allies the Vandals have been destroyed by the Romans, and become easy prey for the Roman army. None of the battles are big or had big looses. The Romans were well matched by the Visigoth. Who took three years to conquer.
Mojoran spent his final years rebuilding Rome. By 474, Mojoran had now died. The eastern emperor appointed Julius Nepos as emperor. Who fortified Spain and finished Mojorian's uncompleted projects.
Battle of Ravenna (second POD)
In 475, Orestie the half-barbarian commander was 15 miles away form Ravanna. Instead of fleeing he decides to fight. This is proven to be the right choice. After the battle, he planned his revenge by invading the Ostrogoth Kingdom. Many of the battles where successful, when they began the siege it was very easy because the walls they were built in the 2nd century and have fell into decay . Nepos plans a campaign of Southern Gaul.
Age of reconquest (475-611)
In 475, the western Europe was divided like this. Italy, Hispania, north Africa was under the Romans most of the Empire was stable. Gaul and southern Germany was Burgundians, Allemage, Visigoth, Franks and Roman Soissons. Germany was under the Saxons, Thuringia and Rugians and Frisians. Nepos first started his campaign on southeast Gaul. The battle had medium losses and had conquered their ill fortified capital. The wealthy land owners of these kingdoms begged to still be in power, so decided that they will make a governors court that would help him govern the province. This will happen all over the reconquered territory. They were able the conquer Allemage who were well matched. Other achievements are building 12 universities to Ravanna and Rome and paid teachers from Constantinople to come to these new universities, making skill workers for Rome. Nepos began to plan further campaigns but died in 502 before he could start. His plans were left to his son Julian Nepos the 2nd , who was born in 480. He started a campaign of the Visigoth kingdom in 504. The Visigoth were cornered by the Romans, the southern front was lead by General Antony and the northern front was lead by Julian the 2nd. The Visigoth put up a good fight, but at end were defeated. As the Roman Empire grew in territory in became more respected in the region. When Julian died his son, Romulus the 1st became emperor. During his rule he had conquered Salian Franks, making a treaty with Ripuarian Franks. He also expanded trade, uncompleted projects by his father and expanded the military. After his death in 580, there were a series of emperors that expanded the empire bit by bit. By 600 most of Germany was under Roman control. In 601 a new emperor, Charlemagne the 1st has been crowned. He had big plans for Rome. First he started campaign on northeast Germany. This was only inhabited by small tribes. This was biggest conquest since Julian the 2nd. Then in 602 had sent message eastern emperor. That the empire is too weak to control itself, he want him to be emperor and he will be his Caesar. It really a plan to murder him. He went to the imperial court room where he was greeted and killed. With the eastern half under his thumb, was able to reunite the empire. This is to strengthen the army tenfold. But he had a problem, Avars in the north were attacking forts and garrisons on the Danube. With the united roman army it was very easy to take it down. They had many battles took place lower Dacia were they defeated the Avars and their leader. He made them sign a treaty that would give the Romans Dacia, most of their gold and army.
The 2nd Pax Romana (611-717)
After his victory over Avars. He returned to Ravanna where he declared as great as Trajan and also restored much of the old Roman world. He started to fortified the borders learning form past mistakes, he also started spreading Roman culture in other parts of the empire by paying people form Italy to move to outer regions of the empire. The rest of his rule was defending the borders. Charlemagne died in 625 feeling very completed. After his death Rome remained mainly peaceful for the next 92 years. This peace can be compered to the first Pax Romana. Most Romans had returned to having confidence in there government and the most violence were against invading Arabs and halted their expansion. Most people in the empire where consider roman ethnically or culturally in the west and the population of cities grew rapidly too. Rome grew form 500,000 in 611 to 800,000 in 641.
By 715, the east and west were too different to be together. For example, the west spoke Latin while the east spoke Greek. So in 717 the emperor Constantine the 7th decided to split the empire a 3rd time and gave it to his brother Romulus II to make the empire more manageable.
The Lombard war (717-762)
The Romans have been dealing with Lombards since the late 6th century, but became fierce in 721. The Lombards began to become more powerful and started annexing small tribes all over Poland. By 726 had taken over most of Poland. And became more of a menace to the empire. They planed an attack on the Lombards due to attacks on villages, forts and barracks. This started the first Lombard war. They gathered the Bavarian mercenaries to attack the Lombards. The Romans destroy many villages but are driven out by Lombard army. In 729, They countered with an attack on northern Germany, though, were driven out by an army of Saxons. Lead by the emperor Magnus, who became emperor this year. He came form a middle class merchant family, Magnus enroll in the army were he rose through the ranks all away to the imperial court. The previous emperor died with no successor an the senate elected Magnus as emperor. He lead several Roman campaigns against the Lombards. Some campaigns were successful, some were not. The Lombards began their own series of campaign. Every time a Lombard campaign started it got farther into the empire. Many were unsuccessful but some were. In 742, Magnus died leaving the throne to his son Fulvianus. Under his rule farist Lombard invasion was attempted which would reach Gaul and northern Italy. The Lombards destroyed many towns and villages. Leaving Italy in ruins and taking several villages. But could not take well fortified cities like Ravanna and Rome. Many tribes got angry which united tribes along with the Romans. They confronted the Lombards in a valley in northern France. The Romans won the battle which was a turning point in the war. After that most of the battles were Lombard defeats and the armies of Rome, Ravanna and Ostrogoth mercenaries drove out the Lombards. Fulvianus lead a campaign against the Lombards. This attack crippled the Lombard economy, sending the government into turmoil. And by 762 the Lombard kingdom collapses from lack of military control. This war is compared to the Punic wars in size and destruction.
Medieval Period (762-1109)
During this period was a time of medium level of war. The empire recovers form the Lombard war and Emperor Romanus helps rebuild war torn Italy. But another invasion is coming from the east. The Arabs had broken through the byzantine army and were heading towards Rome. The roman army halt their expansion again but many attacks happened after. The late 700s was an age of recovery and stability. With little conflict in the court and the senate. And the economy was stable. The towns in the empire after the became more fortified and relied on nobles more and more and less on the governors. In order to became more centralized. Especially Germany were by 814 dissolved governors in Germany. Their were also an expansion of farming in Gaul, Germany and Italy. Which lowered the price of wheat and other farm products. Many Ostrogoth farms where destroyed and nobles bought their land to make villas. With these changes feudalism grew about all over Europe.
In 824 the empire experienced a huge baby boom. There was a large growth in the cities. Rome grew from over one and half million to about over two million. And cities and towns sprouted all over Italy and Germany. By now Rome was considered a continental power with a people more educated and healthy than people outside the empire. Another problem came to the empire - a seafaring people called the Vikings began raiding the coastlines of Gaul and Germany and sank Roman trade ships. This became a problem for the Romans. So it is beginning the war against piracy and the first Gaul coastal war. The Declaration of war against the Vikings was made by Emperor Mark I, the nephew of Romanus. This led to many naval battles on the English Channel and the gulf of Gaul. There were also land battles fought in northern Gallia Lugdunensis. Most of these battles were victories on the Romans' part. And as these raids got more common, Rome decided to send soldiers and mercenaries to villages and towns to protect them. These raids and battles lasted for 82 years. But there were times during the war where Viking settled the coast. And these settlements have lasted all the way to modern times. The emperor who won the war and drove the Vikings out of Gaul was emperor Constantius IV. Constantius was the general who was approved by the senate to be emperor. He used the entire army of Ravanna to drive out their presence in Normandy and ending the war against piracy. Though the viking settlements were still around even after the campaign. And raids continued to but where
100 years after the campaign, Constantius has died and a new invader has come. These people were called the Magyars who have settled Hungary. The Romans have been dealing with them since 907 at the battle of Pressburg where they were defeated. The Magyars have been attacking them ever since. But would change at the battle of Lechfeld in 955. Where a large army of German knights and Roman soldiers. This army lead by emperor Honorus II, crushed the Magyars and forced them to sign a treaty. After this victory the pope decided to add holy to the emperor's title. Even now the emperor was considered the protector of the papacy, but is now official. The empire remained in the same shape it was before. And the towns and cities had barely changed architecturally, but most grew. During the 1000s was a time of good trade with lots of trade with their former enemy the Vikings and Africa. Giving them much wealth. The senate now elects the emperor, due to the rule of Mark II which was one of much abuse. During the pope's influence over Italy was especially strong during this time, because of the wealth of the church. In fact most people thought that the pope was more powerful than the emperor. The struggle would also affected the amount of the senate and the nobles, because this was also how centralized the government should be. This would lead to constant power struggles between the six government bodies which would weaken the empire with time. Most of the Gaul-German Praetorian prefecture was protected by Frankish and German knights. These knights most of time led the Roman army there. Due to this power struggle would make the knights too preoccupied to guard Gaul leaving it unprotected. This would interest the Normans - a seafaring people descended from the Vikings and settled east England. In 1109 had invaded Normandy, easily taken the coastal towns. This is beginning of The Second Turbulent Period of the empire.
The Second Turbulent Period
The empire was in chaos, with six government bodies fighting each other and invaders on both sides. This was the Arabs' time to attack and easy to take. It was also easy for the Normans to take too, in fact, by 1119 they had taken all of Gaul. And in 1121 fourth and final wave started and took all of 20 years. This damaged their economy. The Romans were still fighting. Invading tribes from eastern Europe were attacked but became hard and as time goes on many people fled to Italy due to invaders attacking north Africa and Spain. And the Roman way of life outside of Italy begins to die out. The emperor at this time period was weak and began to rely on German nobles to help them rule. Emperor Augustus IV had dissolved the old imperial government and replaced it with a more aristocratic government. The Roman Empire is now very similar in government to other kingdoms in Europe. And had many aristocratic families, the most powerful was the Habsburgs who controlled all of Austria. They had much influence over the imperial court. They became only more powerful with time. The empire also started becoming more loosely united and even more bureaucratic then it was before. Due to the many aristocratic Families tangling with imperial administration. The other families powerful too and had a good amount of influence. For about 300 years the empire was under a series of weak emperors. They ran economy irresponsibly and ignored the aristocratic families and senate. The Families gained some of the powers of the emperor and made up most of the imperial administration. They would also became popular with people and became more liked than the emperor. This would to Charles X becoming emperor. He was appointed by the Habsburg to be senator in Rome. During his time as senator he cleaned up the city and the old aqueducts of Rome. This would make him very popular and by peoples' choice became emperor. This was made official by the senate in 1503. And ended the second Turbulent period.
The Habsburgs Age
This was a great new age for the Roman Empire, the empire was under good hands. Technology was booming across Italy, setting in the renaissance in Europe. And Charles married into the Spanish royal family making him King of Spain. This is common amongst the Hasburgs. Then later bought a chunk of southern Italy.