Alternate History

Roman Constitution (Superpowers)

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By decree of Caesar and SPQR, this Constitution is ordained for posterity, leaving no uncertainty regarding the proper government of Rome and her colonies. No magistrate or legate can alter the inalienable rights established here as Law in the eyes of God and of the People. Nevermore shall civil strife divide the People.

Pronuntiatio I

[On the contract between the citizen and the state]


  1. Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) is the state vested with all powers in this Constitution.
  2. A citizen is a free male above the age of reason in a certain relation to SPQR.
  3. right by law [legal right] is an obligation of SPQR to every citizen.
  4. civil duty is an obligation of every citizen to SPQR.
  5. contract is a mutual agreement between two bodies to each fulfill an obligation to the other. 
  6. Liberty is the absence of external impediments to voluntary action.


  1. No man shall be recognized as citizen without a certain contract, outlined by law, with SPQR. This contract cannot be legitimately made till the man has reached the age of reason. Otherwise, he is not fit to forge an agreement of the sort required of a citizen of Rome.
  2. Citizenship is held by the citizen and shall remain as such unless revoked by due course of law.
  3. Any man who was conceived of a citizen and daughter of a citizen shall be eligible for citizenship once he has reached the age of reason. This right of inheritance is possessed by the father and maternal grandfather, whether they are living or deceased, and is at their liberty to exercise for their sons and grandsons.
  4. Any man whose lineage through his parents is recognized by representatives of the law as Roman, Hellenic, Egyptian, Syrian, Phoenician, Carthaginian, or Hispanic, cannot be refused citizenship without reference to infamous crimes or disinheritance. No legal right binds SPQR to offer citizenship for this reason but it is a poor state of affairs for a son of Rome to live beyond the shade of her protection.
  5. Any person eligible for citizenship, above the age of reason, may accept or refuse the social contract with SPQR - that contract which binds a man to the state and the state to a man - according to his free judgement. Such a freedom is only superceded by the judgement of his father in the right of inheritance and exceeds the judgement of his grandfather.
  6. To accept is to freely and knowingly proclaim "Civis romanus sum" before a representative of the law and to similarly put one's name to documents admitting the same in writing. No one except the recipient of citizenship may offer himself by contract through this oath.
  7. No citizen can be refused the legal rights obliged to him by SPQR unless he has violated the terms of his social contract. This violation consists in failure to perform certain duties outlined by law.

Pronuntiatio II

[On the right to a fair trial]


  1. crime is a violation, voluntary or involuntary, of a law passed by SPQR.
  2. Conviction is the designation of a punishment for a crime.
  3. Personal destruction is the involuntary loss of any fraction of a citizen's property or well-being.
  4. social order is the relative position of a person in the state. This is a class of citizenship for citizens and a descriptor for non-citizens.
  5. peer of any person is a member of that person's social order.
  6. judge is a representative of the law designated by SPQR with the power to execute a legitimate conviction.


  1. When one citizen summons another citizen, with a representative of the law as witness, before the tribunal of a judge, the accused must under penalty appear before that judge if at liberty to fulfill the summons.
  2. Voluntary failure to comply with a formal summons to a tribunal allows the judge to issue an arrest of the accused. This failure can never be used as an admission of guilt.
  3. A representative of the accused can appear before the tribunal as fulfillment of the summons. For a citizen to send a representative, he must provide written evidence of requesting this action.
  4. A summons can only be made under the pretense that the accused committed a crime. If no evidence whatsoever, besides the word of the prosecutor, can be brought to the judge within one week, then the case is thrown out of court and he who made the summons is fined the weekly wage of that judge.
  5. For the proceedings of the tribunal, the accused has the right to trial in accordance with the interpretation of truth by a jury. No other interpretation shall be accepted in a lawful tribunal.
  6. Whatever truths are determined by deliberation of the jury in a tribunal - concerning the occurrence or not of an event, the presence or absence of a person at a time and place, or any such historical truth - shall be assumed by the judge when he determines his conviction.
  7. Every jury shall consist solely of 12 citizens living within two hours travel time from the court. Four from the order of plebs, four from the order of knights, and four from the order of patricians. The citizens called to serve jury duty shall be selected randomly according to the customs of the time and in accordance with the qualification of citizens to serve on a jury.
  8. Interference by any body outside the proceedings of the tribunal cannot have an effect on the results of the trial. Any attempt to violate this article, by influencing the deliberation of involved individuals through bribery, coercion or blackmail will qualify the deceiver for a fine of a year's minimum wage in addition to the value of any bribe that he or she attempted. A juror or judge has the right to protection by no less than two lictors upon request, if he has good reason to consider himself in personal danger.
  9. The conviction of a lawful judge, determined upon evidence presented by a lawful jury, shall be binding to the accused. Only a mutual agreement between the prosecutor and the accused can supercede his judgement, but this agreement must be recognized by the same judge.
  10. Any power delegated to a judge or juror shall be revoked if he is found in contempt of the law and a new citizen shall be delegated those same powers. The same result shall occur upon the death of judge or juror.
  11. Every province of SPQR shall employ no less than one judge from each social order. A summons for any citizen shall be made with a judge who is a peer of the accused. Any conviction by a judge who is not the peer of the convicted shall be unlawful.
  12. Whether or not an accused shall lose his liberty to leave the province in which he is being tried shall fall solely on the decision of the presiding judge at the start of the tribunal.
  13. Those who submit themselves to SPQR in its defense shall be held to a higher standard than citizens and, as far as their actions as a soldier is concerned, they can suffer punishments without legal procedure.
  14. No citizen shall be deprived of his liberties, lawfully harmed in body, or in any other way personally destroyed  except by the lawful judgement of his peers in a court of law.

Pronuntiatio III

[On the right to protection by the state]


  1. The Legion is a military body under control of SPQR, committed to its defense.
  2. The Pomerium is a parcel of land determined by SPQR as representing its presence on Earth.
  3. colony is a parcel of land or volume of space that is property of SPQR.
  4. War is a violent conflict directly between SPQR and another state.


  1. Every citizen is a part or member of SPQR as the People of Rome.
  2. The Legion has the sole purpose of minimizing all present and future harm to SPQR whenever possible.
  3. The Legion shall not be commanded with the goal of indirectly or directly harming SPQR. The intent of its actions shall always be explicitly for the benefit of SPQR. Those responsible for actions which are intentionally opposed to the well-being of SPQR are guilty of the highest treason.
  4. Murder of a person residing within the Pomerium does harm to SPQR.
  5. For one hundred or more legionaries to approach the Pomerium by foot or on horseback is a sign of intending harm on SPQR. All legionaries entering the Pomerium shall come in their capacity as citizens, losing any military arms and power to command. Legionaries shall only be assembled and given arms under the direct orders of the sovereign, who is determined by Proclamation VII.
  6. Killing a citizen without a lawful conviction does harm to SPQR.
  7. Citizens are not to be tried in any court not recognized as lawful by SPQR. Any attempt to try a citizen in an unlawful or foreign court is an attempt to harm SPQR.
  8. For a citizen to be killed at the hands of a person who is not a citizen of Rome does harm to SPQR.
  9. Protection by SPQR means the Legion shall intervene to prevent the personal destruction of any citizen or, failing this despite genuine effort, to retaliate against those who unlawfully killed, held or robbed a citizen.
  10. Every citizen has the legal right to protection by SPQR against his personal destruction by non-citizens.
  11. During war, every citizen has the right to protection by SPQR to the extent that this does not interfere with victory in that conflict. The need to preserve a whole supercedes the need to preserve each of its parts.

Pronuntiatio IV

[On the right to property]


  1. Property is that which is under the power of a person or body according to SPQR.
  2. title is a document written by a representative of SPQR confirming a citizen's power over some property.
  3. Deprivation is the involuntary restriction of a citizen from his property.
  4. Property is one of material, intellectual or invaluable - that is, an object or estate, an idea or one's person.


  1. No citizen shall be deprived of his property except after fair compensation.
  2. Only direct restriction of property is deprivation
  3. Neither citizens nor non-citizens can deprive a citizen of his property without a lawful conviction.
  4. The property of one's person cannot be deprived for any compensation.
  5. Material property includes any products of one's labour, animals, lands, furnishings, buildings, heirlooms, books, foodstuffs or other purchased commodities.
  6. Whatever is the material property of a citizen is also the property of SPQR.
  7. SPQR shall be allowed, within the limits of law, to remove any citizen's material property.

Pronuntiatio V

[On the right to legislative representation]

Pronuntiatio VI

[On the checks and balances of government]

Pronuntiatio VII

[On the legitimacy of the sovereign]

Pronuntiatio VIII

[On the limits of public office]

Pronuntiatio IX

[On the sovereign authority]

Pronuntiatio X

[On the powers and limits of legislature]

Pronuntiatio XI

[On tribunals]

Pronuntiatio XII

[On the right to a fair wage]

Pronuntiatio XIII

[On the right to life]

Pronuntiatio XIV

[On the provision of citizenship]

Pronuntiatio XV

[On the right to citizenship]

Pronuntiatio XVI

[On the popular limits on legislature]

Pronuntiatio XVII

[On the right to national representation]

Pronuntiatio XVIII

[On new proclamations for the Constitution]

Pronuntiatio XIX

[On the right to free education]

Pronuntiatio XX

[On the duty to children]

Pronuntiatio XXI

[On ineligibility for citizenship]

Pronuntiatio XXII

[On the military limits of the sovereign]

Pronuntiatio XXIII

[On censorship]

Pronuntiatio XXIV

[On natural rights]

Pronuntiatio XXV

[On the equality of persons]

Pronuntiatio XXVI

[On the right to liberty]

Pronuntiatio XXVII

[On sharing technology with foreigners]

Pronuntiatio XXVIII

[Exception to a priori proclamation]

Pronuntiatio XXIX

[On the limits of cities]

Pronuntiatio XXX

[On international waters]

Pronuntiatio XXXI

[On the right to a genetic identity]

Pronuntiatio XXXII

[On the rights of women]

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