Augustus manages to quell Germany early on, leading to some drastic changes.
Here is the alternate course of Rome as I think it would have developed. I hope you enjoy it. The dates are given in many formats. AUC is the Roman year, HC is the Hebrew calendar year, AD is the Christian calendar, and MC is the Muslim calendar. For those not familiar with Roman numerals, they are as follows: M=1000, D=500, C=100, L=50, X=10, V=5, I=1. The point of divergence (POD) is roughly 12 B.C. When Augustus Caesar (Octavian) sent troops to conquer Germania, but failed. Here, he doesn't fail. And the results are drastic... N.B.- some dates have a small addendum beginning with "I.E.", these are important events that take place on or around the date to which they are attached.
DCCXLI A.U.C. - DCCLIX A.U.C. (3748-3766 HC; 12 B.C. - 6 A.D.)
During Augustus' reign the Romanization of Germania was successful and the lands up to the Albis were pacified. While the Germans were lukewarm towards Roman rule they accepted the Romanization of their culture. This led to Arminius, when he attempted to lead a revolt of the Cherusci tribe against Rome, being captured and by the German tribes. He was subsequently handed over to the Romans by the leaders of the Hermunduri as a traitor. As their reward, Augustus declared they should have an autonomous province, which he ceded from Roman territory, the tribes subsequently proved loyal to the Imperium throughout the history of the province. MAP
DCCLXII A.U.C. - CCMLXIX A.U.C. (3769-3856 HC; 9 A.D. - 96 A.D.):
In the time after the creation of the Area Hermundurii all the major tribes surrounding Roman Germany became increasingly Romanized. The Teutones and Semnones fought viciously with the Saxones for control of northern Germania. Eventually the Teutones were left with the uppermost parts of the region while the Saxones moved east-southeast into the lands of the vanquished Semnones. The two kingdoms became client states of Rome, with Regnum Teutonii in the immediate north and the Regnum Saxonii to the northeast. Although loyal to Rome, they were never friendly to each other. The only factor that kept war from breaking out between them were the Hermunduri in the southwest who were well armed and trained by the Romans and who would have been willing to take over their territories if they had left their frontiers undefended. The Regnum Vandalii came into existence after increased contact with the northerly tribes of the Vandals, and established itself just over the Albis to the east-southeast. Many Roman citizens and Romanized Germans were sent into the lands on the far side of the Danube to help in its pacification.
CCMLXIX A.U.C. - CCMLI A.U.C. (3856-3858 HC; 96 A.D. - 98 A.D.):
By the time of the Emperor Nerva, three more major tribes had been cultivated into well Romanized groups. One tribe, the Carpi, had been romanized through the Vandali, and had even set up its own kingdom isolated from the Empire but still allied to it; even out in the center of Europe. It did have a connection to Rome through two other tribes however, the Quadi, and the Sarmati. Seeing a positive and growing trend, Nerva decided to create a Foederatii Germanii. This was a coalition of all five Germanic kingdoms. In this allied state they proved to be effective in holding back onslaughts of tribes on their borders. Nerva, in exchange for their cooperation in his scheme, promised to physically take control of more territory directly, to relieve the strain on the Germanic kingdoms. Two tribes immediately across the Danube volunteered to become provinces (effects of earlier Romanization), these were the Quadi and Sarmati mentioned earlier. Whilst the arrangements for this annexation were being made, Nerva died.
CCMLI A.U.C. - CCMLXX A.U.C. (3858-3877 HC; 98 A.D. - 117 A.D.):
Nerva's successor, Trajan, kept Nerva's promise of the annexation. With five legions, he crossed the Danube and "conquered" the lands of the two pacified tribes. In reality he just marched his troops through as ceremony. He escorted governors to their new posts and met with cheering crowds. Then, without warning, he lunged into the territory just east-southeast of the newly acquired lands called Dacia. He conquered it quickly and created a third new province. The people were slightly difficult to tame, but the soldiers among them were coerced to join his ranks for a campaign in the east. With this action all the rebellious spirit was brought away from the province and it Romanized rather easily over time, mixing with the Romanized Sarmati to their northwest. MAP
CCMLXX A.U.C. - CCMXCI A.U.C. (3877-3898 HC; 117 A.D. - 138 A.D.):
Trajan's successor, Hadrian, took the final step in the securing of the northern borders. Using troops of the Regnum Carpii, and the pacified Sarmati as auxiliaries, he moved troops into the lands all around Dacia occupied by the Gothi. With military presence there, he presented the Gothi tribes with his proposal that they federate into a state called Magna Gothica, to which they agreed and became the sixth member of the Roman-allied Foederatii Germani. Since they were significantly weaker politically than the other states, and had been forced into their status and could not be fully trusted, a military force was "provided" for them made up of Sarmatians and other Romanized Germans headed by Gothic lords. In this way, it was their army, but the troops could be trusted not to war on Rome or the other allies. Magna Gothica proved to be trustworthy and made every attempt to become a "good neighbor" to its fellow foederatii when the pressure turned up in the east (because of the Huns). Also on his travels, Hadrian went to Britannia, and ordered that to secure Brittania completely, a wall should be built in the north, and a colony established on the barbaric isle of Hibernia (named Colonia Hadriana Brigantia). He dictated that, in order to maintain good relations, no subjugation of the inlands would take place (only the centuriated city and attached fortification, and a 10 mile radius), and only a small garrison would be stationed there. This colony was for the purposes of trade and monitoring of the coast.
CMXIV A.U.C. - CMXXLIII A.U.C. (3921-3940 HC; 161 A.D. - 180 A.D.):
Marcus Aurelius rose to the throne in time to see Vologases III of Parthia invade the client Kingdom of Armenia. He sends his co-Emperor Lucius Verus to quell the rebellion, who uses as generals Statius Priscus (gov. of Cappadocia) and Gaius Avidius Cassius (gov. of Syria). They return Armenia to a new King in 165 and everyone returns home. A new governor named Publius Martius Verus was assigned to Armenia to aid the new King. Back in Rome Lucius Verus aids Marcus Aurelius in his reshaping of the Roman world into a Republican empire until his death in 169 at the hands of Commodus. Commodus, the son of Marcus Aurelius, wanted to have the throne passed on to him, and thus poisoned Verus. Marcus Aurelius found this out and had him banished to Brittania Province, unable to execute or incarcerate his only son. When a conspiracy was found involving Commodus and the Briton legions he was killed resisting arrest at his Londinium domus. In 175 another usurper, this time Cassius in Syria, claimed the purple thinking Marcus Aurelius was dead. Publius Martius Verus immediately sent word to Rome of Cassius' doings in the East. Verus made his way to Cappadocia and assumed governorship of the province until Marcus Aurelius could arrive. While the entire East flocked to his side, Verus held Cappadocia and Bithynia loyal. The Senate had reported to him the Emperor was alive and well and they did not recognize Cassius. As Marcus Aurelius made his way east, provinces seeing him alive quickly realigned themselves with Aurelius. A Centurion lopped off Cassius' head and presented it to Rome and Publius Martius Verus finished off any remaining rebels. For his loyalty, in 176 Publius Martius Verus was named the successor of Marcus Aurelius. He was charged by Marcus to restore the Republican government in his tenure of office, as the Empire was stable enough to loose this archaic monarchical system. I.E.- The empire extended into Caledonia at this point.
CMXXLIII A.U.C. - CMXLVI A.U.C. (3953-3940 HC; 180 A.D. - 193 A.D.):
The rule of Publius Martius Verus. It is a time of momentous change and activity for the whole of the Roman world. Immediately following M. Aurelius's death, Verus speaks nobly to the Senate, saying he wishes not to be crowned as he has much work to do. The Senate, having seen his purposes declared him Interrex until he decides to abdicate or accept his crown. The eastern governors united in revolt against Verus with the Syrian governor at the head (Pescennius Niger) in CMXL A.U.C. (187 AD). With the constitution Marcus had drawn up and given to him, Verus made his way across the western parts of the empire and set up the offices necessary to implement the Republic again. He must appoint most positions, as the elections would be too monstrous to handle for every post at once; he is very careful to remind, however, that these positions are elected (the brothers Quintilli are appointed Consuls in Rome). After all was complete abroad, he returned to Rome and set up the Senatorial Corpus as it needed to be, and set about his final task: legislation that he wanted. As the last Imperial regent his mark would be these laws he delivered to the Senate. In short, he made the new government constitutional by declaring all posts in legal format, made Rome less dependent on foreign military support by raising more troops; organized the five classes and set up a tax system that drew more from the wealthy; declared civil war and usurpation the highest crime; and lastly gave the Hebrew religion and all sects (including Christian), rights to worship in certain provinces. In his final imperial speech to the Senate, he said that he thought this the greatest test of this new Republic to go to fight Niger in Syria, as he could not, for fear of the Principate continuing if he took command as an Emperor. So, as supreme commander of the new Republican armies, he went to fight Pescennius and in CMXLVI A.U.C. (193 A.D.), he killed him in battle. I.E.- The establishment of the Minerva priesthood. Crop rotation introduced. Former Imperial property is seized by the state and sold off at auction.
CMXLVII A.U.C. - CMXXCVI A.U.C. (3954-3993 HC; 194 A.D. - 233 A.D.):
The old Republican traditions re-established themselves as the city and western empire were forced to unite against the Pescennian dynasty which claimed "Imperial" right to Rome. In CMIL A.U.C. (196 A.D.) Persia gave its support to the second Pescennius Niger (the younger) with small groups of men and promises of peace between the two when they reclaimed Rome. Persia did this in the hope that Rome would become weakened and that they could force the Pescennians to cede land. After a long stalemate, in CMXXCVI A.U.C. (233 A.D.) the Republican forces, strengthened after the legions from the new law of Verus were starting to emerge from training, won a decisive siege at Pagrae, in Syria, about 16 miles north on the road to Antiochia. With a large force lost and his allies not willing to send troops across to fight with Pescennius, Niger retreated east into Persia. Rome had regained her eastern provinces.
CMXXCIIX A.U.C. - M (3995-4007 HC; 235 A.D. - 247 A.D.):
After two years of debate in which the armies occupied Antioch and the east, the Senate finally decided to cross the Euphrates river and invade Persia, declaring an end to the threat once and for all. The troops marched down the Euphrates and captured first Callinicum, then Circesium, Dura, Seleucia, and finally Ctesiphon; sending every noble satrap they caught back to Rome. The empire of the Persians crumbled and only small satrapies were to be conquered. This the soldiers did until they reached the harsh homeland of the Persians and their former capital, Persepolis. Here they stopped and drew the eastern border of the empire stretching from the southeastern most point of the Mare Caspium to a small Persian city called Armuzia. The tired troops returned to their garrisons and Rome rejoiced in its millennial year of existence. MAP I.E.- The College of Minervine priests has extended its reach across the empire to spread knowledge and learning. Time of economic recession for the empire as money is drained because of the wars.
MXXXIIX A.U.C.-MXLIIX A.U.C. (285 A.D. - 295 A.D.):
During and after the Consulship of Diocles (Diocletianus). The empire's provinces are vastly reorganized, as is the provincial government. A new Latinism is instilled throughout the empire to turn the tide of Hellenistic attitudes and styles imported by returning legions from the war. As Consul, Diocles goes forth to the Sinai at the head of an army, declaring some phantom Christian conspiracy against Rome. He reaches the peninsula and slaughters about 75% of the Christians before the Senate sends word of his need to return home. At the conclusion of his term, a trial was set up which declared his actions against the Christians unconstitutional. He was exiled to his homeland of Dalmatia and given a pension to build a palace in Spalatum.
MCIIIIC A.U.C. - MCCXXIII A.U.C. (4203-4230 HC; 443 A.D. - 470 A.D.):
The Huns slowly came in from the Eastern steppes of Asia behind the Germanies under the leadership of Attila, and through brutal raids coerced them into weak alliances against their one-time ally Rome (who had weakened her relationship with the Germans by not sending many troops to aid the Germans against the Huns as they wanted the troops in the still new eastern provinces). Gaul petitioned Rome for troops to be sent before the suspected invasion of the Huns and the Senate replied that they had to wait nearly a year for troops (to come from the east). The Gauls decided to raise a huge army of cavalry militias, which proved effective in holding off the Huns from full-scale invasion. With this force many advances were made in cavalry and cavalry fighting that improved the general quality of the legions over the next years throughout the empire. When troops finally arrive from the east in Italia, the Senate refuses to garrison them anywhere except the Albis-mountain border, not willing to free the traitorous Germans who are begging for forgiveness and liberation from Attila (in this case, the "mountain border" is the Carpathian mountains). While Rome held off the Huns, their king Attila died and their empire quickly crumbled. The Senate, at this time taken over by radicals of an expansionist nature, legalizes a consular plan to invade the Germanies. I.E.- Large cavalry wings are now adopted for the legions.
MCCXXIV A.U.C. - MCCXXXIII A.U.C. (4231-4240 HC; 471 A.D. - 480 A.D.):
The invasion of the weakened German kingdoms is swift and easy. Starting from the north the Romans moved south and brought the empire into the lands of the Germans to the Vistula River in the north and the Tyras River in the south. With this mass conquest, resistance is strong and many legions are consumed in garrisons of the new provinces. The Senate quickly becomes isolationist and stops all expansion in the hopes of consolidating the huge conquests in the north and middle east. MAP
MCCCIV A.U.C. - MCCCVI A.U.C. (4311-4313 HC; 551 A.D. - 553 A.D.):
The Senate, for the last few years, had become more and more conservative, and had demanded legions to fill the quota of diocese from all the pacified regions (as they couldn't be drawn from the untamed ones). Finally, an eastern Prefect was assassinated and the entire Persian prefecture rose in revolt. The Senate declared an emergency and appointed a six-month dictator (an ancient, outdated custom) named Pescennius, with the true belief he would resign in six months. He traveled east with inadequate amounts of troops (because of northern pacification), and set up a base of operations in Antiochia. Progress was slow and at the end of his dictatorship he had only managed to gain back the coastlines of Syria and a small amount of the interior. Upon receipt of a letter from the Senate saying he was to resign, he wrote back saying they should make him a dictator again or start calling him Princeps, because he was not going to have this war tossed from one man to another every half year. They accepted his indefinite dictatorship and turned their attentions to the pacification of Germania Magna. When the dictator died, his son (serving with him) immediately seized control of the legions and sent word to Rome that he was dictator now. The Senate replied, fearing civil war, that they accepted his mandate. The Consul Perpetuus of the time, Gaius Helvetius Pertinax, abdicated upon receipt of the Senate's acceptance of the new Dictator, stating that they were tearing the Constitution with their actions, and he would have none of it. The second principate had begun.
MCCCVII A.U.C. - MCCCLIII A.U.C. (4314-4360 HC; 554 A.D. - 600 A.D.):
The war continued in Persia for many years as the area needed heavy pacification before the army could move farther east. The Senate carefully ruled the west, and let the Dictator/Princeps command the east and its many legions, as they feared an independent Persia. By MCCCIL A.U.C. (596 A.D.) the last of the rebellions had been suppressed and the legions began the work of garrisoning and controlling the troops. By this time, a Romanized Syriac general had made his way to the Dictatorship and was ruling the east (these Dictators adopted heirs). The court at Antiochia had effectively been made an eastern capital. The people seemed to be accepting their fate as Roman citizens, due largely to the (by this time) nativity of the legions and Dictators. The Princeps sent a letter to Rome saying he would stay until he felt the area sufficiently calmed.
MCCCLXXXV A.U.C. - MCDIII A.U.C. (4392-4410 HC; 632 A.D. - 650 A.D.; 10-28 MC):
As the Dictator was preparing to pack up his court and travel to Rome to take his throne in the official capital, and ambassador was received from the south, from the lands of the Arab traders and Bedouins who had never been conquered. The envoy told the Princeps that a new religion had blossomed in Arabia Magna, and its leader had just died. They wished to know if they might send peaceful missionaries into Roman territories. The Princeps, Pescennius III Syrius, thought something was suspicious and decided to take a journey to this new united Arabia's capital, Madinat al-Nabi, before heading back to Rome (where he had never actually been before). When he got there he spent 2 years in the Arab's political capital, as he found it to be. He decided that the people's beliefs were dangerous and expansionist, threatening the gods of Rome. He sent word to the Senate, asking permission he did not wait for to attack. The Senate agreed and replied so a full half-year after the conquest began. Pescennius III divided his forces in two and marched down the two coastlines destroying all the newly formed armies of Islam as he went. He met up with his general and adopted heir, Lucius Darius Pescennius, in a small coastal town called Mesala. Here they formed a provincial capital and organized the area into a few provinces. The people were allowed to worship freely and not use violent force to spread their faith. Just as the Christians and Jews had their designated provinces, the Muslims could only practice completely free of persecution in the coastal province of Arabia Occidentalis. The whole peninsula had been brought under Rome, and in its weak state, could not find much reason to resist the might of the legions. The cities, which had just started to blossom, found new windows of trade open to them through the empire and quickly grew into some of the most prosperous in the east.
MDCMLVI A.U.C. (4472 HC; 712 A.D.; 90 MC):
His ancestral capital finally packed up, Pescennius IX Agricola brings only two legions with him on his journey to his true capital, Rome. As he leaves, he appoints most of the legions to the untamed areas conquered by his ancestors in Persia, Arabia, and his family's newest conquest, Axum (which brought the entire Sinus Arabicus under Roman rule). [Axum (n.b.- the kingdom was Christian, and many were forced to renounce their religion or move to Palaestina Salutaris)] Axum's beautiful city of Adulis was harassing the Arab sea traders, who demanded assistance from Rome once they had been conquered. Rome went in to find a strong, wealthy yet small kingdom that was easily conquered. From here they marched northward into a decrepit kingdom called Kush, and downriver met up with their fellow legionnaires in Aegyptus. So, Pescennius went to Rome and spoke to the Senate, and found them in a bold state. They declared to him that his temporary dictatorship was at an end; his services in war were no longer required. With most of the west never having been affected by his imperial rule, he finds little support for his claim to the throne, and escapes through Ostia for the east, both of his legions having defected to the Senate. MAP I.E.- Hero's steam engine rediscovered as a source of power. Arabic-Hindu numerals begin to seep into common use in the eastern provinces.
MCDLVI A.U.C. - MDXCIV A.U.C. (4473-4601 HC; 713 A.D. - 841 A.D.; 91-219 MC):
As the Senate wasn't too warlike at this point, and successive Pescennians had trouble raising and training good local troops, the re-conquest went slowly but surely for the Republic. Many Persians want peace and the Dictator has trouble winning support of people who have seen nothing but war from him and his line. In MDXCII A.U.C. (839 A.D.) Pescennius XV is pushed clear out of Roman lands and retreats with his two rabble "legions" into a river valley called the Indus, into an ancient Alexandrian colony called Portus Macedonum. With permission from the Senate, the Magister Militum pushes out of the empire over the mountains into the fertile plains and lays siege to the small town. The Magister speaks with the locals and decides to hold the area as a province after the siege is finished. With this final eastern province drawing the limes of the empire at the Indus River, the Magister returns to Rome and has Pescennius XV thrown from the Tarpeian Rock. The empire is finally at peace and the third Roman Republic begins. MAP I.E.- Official end of slavery in the empire. First raids of the Normannii begin MDXII A.U.C. (799 A.D.) in Gaul.
MDXCV A.U.C. - MDLXVII A.U.C. (4602-4624 HC; 842 A.D. - 864 A.D.; 220-242 MC):
With peace declared in the eastern territories, the empire had to deal more and more with these mysterious Normannii from Scandia. Up until recently, reports of attacks on the lower Rhenus were largely ignored. With a war on in the east, many in Rome thought a few raids highly inconsequential. Besides, all superfluous soldiers were needed in the greater Germanic provinces to keep things tame. Having great hordes of money, art, goods, and food, the Minervine temples on the Gallic coast were easy prey for the Normannii, especially with no large military or naval presence to be found. So, over time the raids increased. With the war having just recently ended, Rome had neither the troops nor the money to establish a Germanic navy to protect the coastlines. Grudgingly, the Senate pulled troops from the European east and set them up in shore forts along the coastlines, praying the provinces would not rebel. With Roman engineering and sweat, the soldiers created barricades to block the rivers from the longships that sailed up them. And with many more camps and outposts along the coasts, all but the quickest raids became too risky for the Normannii. The raids faded away and all seemed back to normal.
MDCXIIX A.U.C. - MDCXXL A.U.C. (4625-4637 HC; 865 A.D. - 877 A.D.; 243-255 MC):
In one of the biggest strategic errors a Roman Consul had ever made, the defense of Brittannia, which had thus far seen only the most minute of raids (for not as many temple complexes could be found here), had been grievously forgotten. The Normannii started to turn up the pressure on the island and raids became severe. So severe in fact that many of the Normannii who called themselves Dannii thought it prudent to attempt subjugation of the island. The solitary legion in Brittannia could only hold so much, and were pushed back to the west-southwestern portion of the island, having lost the ancient city of Londinium to the barbarians. Fearing the loss of more lands and unwilling to loosen the grip on the Gallic coast, the Senate once more acquisitioned troops from the greater Germanic provinces. For the time being, the legions remaining there had to be spread precariously thin. Rome was sure an insurrection would occur. These soldiers make their way to Brittannia and managed to push the Dannii to the upper half of Caledonia. With no navy to stop them, the various other Normannii tribes in Caledonia join with the Danii and sail to the outlying Brittannic isles (making their base of operations on Monapia. From here, they raid the mainland for a time until the Romans are forced to withdrawal to the south bank of the firth of forth. Here, a shaky truce is declared and the Romans dig in and fortify their position; word from Rome has it that no plans are being made to regain upper Caledonia. Over time, the petty Normannii chiefdoms of northern Caledonia are conquered by each other, and finally, the jarl (earl) of Monapia consolidates all of non-Roman Brittannia under his own crown. With funds finally acquired by MDCXXVII A.U.C. (875 A.D.) from Rome, a new classis (fleet) is commissioned near a dilapidated legionary fort called Deva, which is overhauled to serve as operational headquarters. A major recruiting station for sailors for this new fleet is established in Colonia Hadriana Brigantia across the Oceanus Hibernicus. The native inhabitants, who are not citizens of Rome, are beginning to feel the sting of raids themselves and gladly join up to build and sail a fleet that will protect all allies of Rome and the empire which at the end of their service term they will be a part. In affect, Hibernia is on the path to Romanization, if not subjugation.
MDCXXLIII A.U.C. - MDCLXV A.U.C. (4640-4672 HC; 880 A.D. - 912 A.D.; 258-290 MC):
Rome's eastern German citizens begin to convey tales of raids from the frontiers by a people called the Russii, the descriptions of these men bear striking similarity to the Normannii. Once again Rome has no troops to send, and tells the provinces as much. Progressively, the raids occur more and more. The Russii even manage to cross the Pontus Euxinus and attack the Anatolian provinces (Anatolia, technically still a geographic term, is Turkey). With the help of some rarely-spoken-to-previously friends, the Khazars, Rome manages to build small coastal defense fleets whilst the Germans still beg for protection. The knowledge of what happened to Gaul has put the European east's citizens on the verge of panic. Back in Rome, the debates rage as to how to handle this problem. Some Senators even favored withdrawing and letting the Germans fight for themselves. But most of the Conscript Fathers are still of the old opinion that Rome was meant to rule the world, and rule she must. A cool minded Senator named Lucius Verus Julianus proposed an idea after a speech he gave, stating that the threat on the frontier was not that great. It was the panic amongst the provinces that was the problem. He proposed that if the slightest Roman military presence were made, the provinces would calm themselves. And as for the Russii, they would stop raiding if even the slightest resistance was given to their attacks, just as it was in Gaul. With that, he proposed his idea. He supposed that the temples of the Romano-German gods in the provinces near the frontier should form from their temple treasuries a new military force. Funded from the temples, which were quasi-state property, they would have the necessary connection to the state to not to be considered a private force. And in this way many locals could be counted on to be recruited, as they would have no difficulty fighting in a force whose patron god was theirs. Some money minded Senators proposed also that Rome could afford to supplement any required funds to raise the troops, provided the temples handled the bulk of the bills. In this way the troops didn't have only the priests to thank for their well-being. After much debate, it was decided that small mounted forces would be most effective to guard such a large area, and the orders were sent out to the temples to create their new forces: the Equites Templii (Knights of the Temples). Once this had been done and raids were reduced around the year MDCLIII A.U.C. (900 A.D.), the Romans thought it wise to form an alliance with the Khazars to drive the Russii back and give both states some breathing room. After a long stretch of time, the raiders were pushed back into Sarmatia (which had lately been called Slavia or Russia [interchangeably]), at which point both Rome and Khazaria agreed they needed to push no further. The Russii were left with vast stretches of inland territory and a nice sized corridor to the Euxinus to let them trade with the two empires as per terms of the peace treaty. This marks the general end of hostilities between Rome and the Normannii-Russii. An era of peace and trade appears to loom in the future. MAP I.E.- By now, a few major dialects have developed throughout the empire, though pure antique Latin is used for clarity in documents of government and to be allowed into politics. The major tongues are as follows: Italo/Narbonennsian (Italy, and the Mediterranean coast of France), Gallo-Latin (France), Hispanian Latin (Spain), Dalmatian Latin (Yugoslavia), African Latin (Tunisia and the environs). The east maintained its Greek roots and Brittania was only superficially Latinized, made less so with the invasions of the Normannii, and so no dialect developed there. The same held true for the large tracts of German territories minus the Area Hermundurii (which developed a language from German and Latin dubbed Hermundurian).
MDCLXXIII A.U.C. - MMCXX A.U.C. (4680-4960 HC; 920-1200 AD; 298-578 MC):
The governement in Rome has become weak with a drop in funds. Attempts to build infrastructure in outlying parts of the empire have proven fruitless and money is wasted, while trade seems to be flourishing nevertheless. The heavy infrastructure of the government's tax collectors seems to be sucking the lifeblood of the empire out from it as well. European cities, becoming wealthy from commerce with the northern areas, flood the Senate with letters suggesting the eradication of the burgeoning tax collection system to be replaced by direct payment to the capital. The cities are organized into various payment groups and begin to assert limited autonomy within the empire. Regionalism develops very subtley as the different cities unite in trading alliances and cooperatives. As the leagues usurp the roles of the various governors, the capital sees no reason that the regions should not form their own militias for defense from their own budgets, which of course will give them small exemptions from payments to the city (Rome is starting to lose its ability to defend all the world at once with its own military). Suspiciously, the European diocese agree until the Brittanic provinces ask for complete autonomy with simple annual tribute to Rome. At this point, Europe erupts and demands the same treatment for themselves. The western empire appears on the brink of civil war, and the Senate, fearing similar eruption in the east, seeks a reform-minded man to settle the situation. In steps Gaius Maximianus, who during his consulship calls for a council in a small town where no one can bring an army in the province of Rhaetia I (This is in modern day Switzerland).
MCMLVI A.U.C. (4963 HC; 1203 AD; 581 MC):
The Council of Helvetia, as it was called, convened to settle disputes between the provincial groups and the seat of power in Rome. After long weeks of debate, it was decided that Rome had no choice but to let its western provinces go free (suppressing multiple revolts would have been a grim process). They were organized into independent Republics based on the Roman model, but by no means could Rome hope to force the governments to stay in place. Rome asked in return absolute safety which the liberated provinces promised in the form of alliances to her (but not each other). The Romanized west was split. MAP
MMIII A.U.C. - MMLXX A.U.C. (5010-5077 HC; 1250-1317 AD; 628-695 MC):
Though problems appeared to have been avoided, the newly formed states almost immediately became hostile to one another as disputes over exact borders raged and embargoes against trade dipped everyone's profits. The northern states of the Normannii turned their sites to settlement of lands they claimed to have found to the west. Meanwhile, Rome was busy playing the mediator for increasingly threatening rulers. Concurrently, the east has become jealous of the wests apparent ease in becoming free and are rallying themselves up to form a voice against Rome's control. The Levant area leads the way in opposition to Rome and becomes a hotbed of resentment. The eastern territories have never been truly loyal, and they had military traditions to call on, which put Rome on edge. The only thing seemingly in Rome's favor was the inability of the Attic-Greek speakers to get along with the Arabics and neithers ability to agree with the Judeo-Christers of the south (who in turn squabbled amongst themseslves). When Rome's delegation arrives in Alexandria, the peoples of Syria (Muslims) demand liberation and claim the east for themselves. Rome works with them and whittles away chunks of their claims for the other groups in the area that are opposed to Syrian/Arabic domination. Once again Rome understands its position and can do nothing but form protective alliances to protect the few borders it has left. Therefore, the new lands of Greece and Asia become fierce allies to Rome to hold back the frightful Muslims. In an historical flip, the Judeo-Christers ally themselves with Rome as well. Seemingly predicting an outbreak if not checked, Rome gives more territory of the Muslims' claims to the Khazar Khanate to keep them checked from the North. As a final slice into the Muslim demands, Rome convinces the majority Zoroastrian Persians that they should have their own lands as well, and sets them up separate. The Syrian/Arabians dispute this after the treaty is signed. Rome has always feared a large unified east. MAP
As I stated on my original webpage, formatting this was a pain. So I have not. Bear with me. Interestingly, this constitution has been adapted -and hugely modified- by the Respublica Septimontiana.
For reasons of tidiness, the constitution of the timeline is here.
Begin Julio-Claudian Dynasty
- 27bc-14ad Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus
- 14-37 Tiberius
- 37-41 Caligula
- 41-54 Claudius
- 54-68 Nero
- 69 Galba
- 69 Otho
- 69 Vitellius
- 69-79 Vespasian
- 79-81 Titus
- 81-96 Domitian
- 96-98 Nerva
- 98-117 Trajan
- 117-138 Hadrian
- 138-161 Antoninus Pius
- 161-180 Marcus Aurelius w/ Lucius Verus to 169
- 180-193 Publius Martius Verus (Interrex)
- Brothers Quintilli appointed Consuls indefinitely
- Sextus Quintilius Condianus; Sextus Quintilius Valerius Maximus
- 193-213 Consul Perpetuus Gaius Frontinus Pulcher
- 213-233 Sextus Aurelius Piso
- 233-251 Aelius Caelius Fronto
Begin Pescennians (Syrian Despotate)
- 187-193 Gaius Pescennius Niger Iustus
- 193-233 Gaius Pescennius Niger (the Younger)
- 251-271 Gaius Iulianus Drusus
- 271-291 Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus
- 548-553 Gaius Helvetius Pertinax (abdicates)
- 551-553 Dictator/Princeps Fulvius Pescennius Percennius
- 553-576 Fulvius Pescennius Percennius (the Younger)
- 576-585 Fulvius Pescennius III
- 585-599 Gaius Pescennius Syrius
- 599-617 Gaius Pescennius II Syrius
- 617-650 Gaius Pescennius III Syrius
- 650-656 Lucius Darius Pescennius
- 656-660 Gaius Pescennius Ahenobarbus
- 710-715 Gaius Pescennius IX Agricola
- 839-841 Publius Pescennius Augustulus
- 841-851 Gaius Lupus Aquilius
- 851-870 Titus Annius Valerianus
These laws are all important to the socio-political development of the timeline.
The laws are assembled in batches. Meaning that every batch has a title, and one can assume that these laws were all passed at a certain point in the timeline, not at several. Along with the title a short explanation of when the laws were passed and for what reasons is given.
leges Aurelia et Martia (These are the laws passed by Publius Martius Verus at the death of Marcus Aurelius. His intent was to reform the empire into a republic again):
- Our former Emperor, Marcus Aurelius saw fit to charge Publius Martius Verus with the task of putting the Imperial government of Rome back in its original state of res publica. To this end, he did appoint Publius Martius as successor to his throne. This done lawfully, Publius accepted and assumed the throne with the intent to rid Rome of its eastern influences. To that conclusion, these laws are passed summarily in the extra-traditional way of all being ratified at once.
- A census shall be conducted and all citizens enrolled into classes once more. There will be five in total with an underclass known as capite censi of non-property owning peoples. Persons will be enrolled as follows: those of the First Class shall be owners of more than 100,000 asses; the men of the Second Class should have between 100,000 and 75,000 asses; men of the Third Class from 74,999 to 50,000 asses, Fourth Class 49,999 to 25,000 asses, and Fifth Class 24,999 to 11,000 asses. Below this is the capite censi. Upon the conclusion of every fifth year, a new census will be taken and taxes to the estates of the five classes collected. These should equal 25% for the First Class, 20% for the Second, 15% for the Third, and 10% for the Fourth and Fifth Classes. These rates may be altered as needed by the Senate if necessary, so long as the Concilium Plebii agrees and the new rate puts the burden on those who have the most money, namely the First and Second Classes. Any other revenues needed by the State shall be gathered by the Senate in ways it deems fit with the approval of the Concilium Plebii. Of the Five Year Tax, 10% should immediately go to the Aerarium Alimentorum, to give the Head Count their share of state profits. The First Class is named the Patricians, 2nd and 3rd Are the Equites, the rest Plebeians. Thus ends the lex Aurelia et Martia II.
- As of this law, all offices currently operating are disbanded or given new titles and/or responsibilities according to the chart drawn up here. The Senate is given the task of setting up this new constitution for the Whole People. Thus ends the lex Aurelia et Martia III.
- All death sentences shall be forthwith carried out by crucifixio. Thus ends the lex Aurelia et Marti IV.
- Civil war and marching on the city of Rome are once more enforceable perduellio, with penalty of immediate death without need of trial. This is to be considered the highest treason in the land. Anyone related to the person who commits this act shall be stripped of any offices and ranks and have all property confiscated from their gens. Thus ends the lex Aurelia et Martia V.
- The Eastern tribe of Hebrews shall be allowed to worship completely unmolested in the province of Palaestina. Outside of this territory, they may still worship, but are not guaranteed protection by the law of Rome. Thus ends the lex Aurelia et Martia VI.
- The Hebrew cult of Christ-worshippers are to be allowed unmolested worship in the province of Palaestina Salutaris. Outside of this area, they are to be considered foreigners. All property and wealth acquired by any person or group that claims itself as Christian is henceforth the property of the Roman Senate. People found outside of the province can either be sent back there being stripped of all possessions or be executed. Crimes committed against Christians outside of Palaestina Salutaris by citizens of Rome are not prosecutable. Thus ends the lex Aurelia et Martia VII.
- This law, when passed, is to sanctify the previous leges Aurelia, as passed by the Senate and People of Rome. They are to be considered sacrosanct and may not be repealed or overridden by new laws. Thus ends the lex Aurelia et Martia IIX.
I am currently transferring this timeline from a former Geocities site. Bear with me as I format everything and transfer maps etc. over.
This timeline IS copyrighted and several novels have been written based on it. No stealing please! ;)