In 644, Caliph Umar lay on his deathbed. In order to select the new Caliph as Abu Bakr did before him, Umar selects six men to choose between themselves the next Caliph. Among them, Ali, Abdur Rahman bin Awf, Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas, Uthman ibn Affan, Zubayr ibn al-Awam, and Talhah. As Talhah was traveling outside of Medina at the time, he could not be part of the election process, leaving the candidacy list down to four.

At first in order to be unanimous, Zubayr withdrew his candidacy in favor of Ali. Although reluctant, Sa'd withdraws in favor of Abdur Rahman, thinking Uthman to be too concerned with economic prosperity. Uthman, recognizing Abdur Rahman's experience as a close companion of Muhammad, withdraws in favor of Abdur Rahman. With Uthman as the arbiter, he asks Abdur Rahman and Ali if they will follow in the footsteps of previous Caliphs. While Ali responds that he will follow the Sunnah of Muhammad and the Qur'an, Abdur Rahman says that he will follow in the footsteps. Uthman chooses Abdur Rahman as the new Caliph, and Ali swears allegiance.

With Uthman no longer a catalyst in the First Fitna that would cause the collapse of the Rashidun Caliphate, the original Caliphate is allowed to prosper for years to come.

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