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|Timeline: Principia Moderni II|
3rd Duke of York
6th Earl of the March
7th Earl of Ulster
|1425 - 1450|
|Edward of Norwich||Edward IV|
38th King of England
10th Lord of Ireland
|1450 - 1460|
|Henry VI||Edward IV|
1st Prince of Calais
|1457 - 1460|
21 September 1411
|Death||30 December 1460|
|Issue|| Anne, Princess of Asturias (1439)|
Edward, 4th Duke of York (1442)
Edmund, 1st Earl of Rutland (1443)
Elizabeth, Princess of Austria? (1444)
George, 1st Duke of Clarence (1449)
Richard, 1st Duke of Gloucester (1452)
Holy Roman Catholic Church.
For pre-1450 biography see Richard III's biography prior 1450
In 1450, with help of Jack Cade's rebellion and Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick's support, Richard III took over and became king, iniciating the last persecution of the member of House of Lancaster, except for John II of Castille, who he offered an alliance and truce in the succession struggle, while his firstborn daughter, Anne would marry prince Henry of Trastamara.
He inmediately reacted before the chaos of Normandy, then under attack of the french, led by Charles VII. Richard decided to send Neville to fight for him while he made strategic alliances. He saw an opportunity in Frederick V of Austria, just elected Frederick III of the Holy Roman Empire, who had centralist ideals for make the Empire a single political and commercial unit. Richard offered him support, and he quickly earned the friendship of FIippo Maria Visconti, Duke of Milan, Andres, King of Bavaria-Munchen and others, himself becoming the greater supporter of the centralist faction outside the Empire. He quickly gained as allies Frederick II, King-Elector of Saxony and the King of Brandenburg.
He also had to become a strong ally of Pope Nicholas V, sovereign of the States fo the Church, as, in order to reach the throne, he ahs to create a more powerful Parliament, and the only one with total power to veto its actions was the Pope.
Other important ally was king Alfonso V of Portugal, who daughter Joana promissed in marriage to Edward, the Crown Prince and heir, oldest son of Richard III, who inmediately travelled to Portugal from the castillian court, where he was pupil of John II until his death and the upcoming of the Regency Council, led by Jaencio the Storyteller in representation of king Alfonso III.
He didn't ignore the threat France and Scotland represented to him, so he met with Charles VII and James II in Rouen, and arranged a peace in 1453, for which Richard gave up the whole Normandy to France except for the offshore territories, three of which's islands, Borhou, Ortac and Renonquet, he gave to the portuguese to adminsitrate in thanks for their help in the war, though the english military still supervised and controled the commerce in the islands. His daughter Margaret was also promissed to a french prince.
Later, he helped in the Holy Roman Civil Wars. His troops fought in Bavaria for the Munchen unificationist faction against the antiunificationists of Ingolstadt, getting victory and assuring the bavarian unification. Then they helped Frederick V of Austria (V of the Holy Roman Empire) against the pretender Albert VI, supported by Luxemborug, the Palatinate and Hungary.
In the process, he helped Brandenburg to gain independence from Luxembourg, but the Emperor was forced to sign peace and yield the Duchy of Tyrolia to Albert VI.
Never mind of this, he created the Calais (Principia Moderni II)1Principality of Calais and joined the Empire, making his second son, Edmund, the heir. He also gained some island in the Aegean Sea from Genoa after the Milanese finished to vassalize it.
The explorer Thomas Alcock initiated his travels under Richard's reign.
He died in 30 December 1460, just in the middle of the irish centralziation process. His efforts for make the navy grow made prossible the future explorations.