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The Republican Revolutions, known in some countries as the Rise of Republics, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe (and few in Asia) in the early 20th century, immediately after the First World War. The majority of the nations (most of which were autocratic in some form) later became republics.
- Main article: Prussian Revolution
The first major republican revolution in Europe started from the Prussians. When the Prussians lost the First World War and the Treaty of Versailles forced them to give up land and millions in reparations, a revolution began to strike against the monarchy.
The first major uprisings began in the capital of Berlin, and soon spread across the kingdom. Wilhelm II was forced to flee the nation or risk death at the hands of his people, and fled to the United Kingdom in exile with Nicholas II. The Prussian revolution continued despite the success of the revolutionaries to remove the monarchy, as Communist revolutionaries arose as a result of the war debt inflicted upon them. Many believed that the success of the Communist Revolutions in Asia would benefit the Prussian recovery, and a civil war ensued.
- Main article: Irish Revolution
In the United Kingdom, the Liberal Party faced numerous uprisings by protesters, many of whom wished to overthrow the monarchy and become a republic. However, when the Liberal Party resigned and the Conservatives came to power, major protesting stopped.
- Main article: Turkish Revolution
- Main article: Austrian Revolution
The underlying cause for an Austrian Revolution dated back centuries. The Austro-Hungarian Empire had held many major ethnic groups, all of which were poorly represented in a monarchy. Problems only became worse once Montenegro was annexed into the empire, and revolts began to spring up throughout the empire. Inspired by other revolutions in the continent, many wished to become a republic, to better represent the ethnic groups. Another major problem that the empire faced was separatist movements, many of which wished to be annexed into nations that bordered the empire.
Once the revolution broke out, France immediately came to Austria's aid. The president's plan was to quickly help abdicate Charles I of Austria, the Emperor of Austria (among other titles), in order to help quickly create a republican government before separatists split apart the land. Countless attacks on the Imperial Council of Austria were made, with efforts to force Charles I to abdicate his throne. By late 1923, Charles had officially abdicated, and fled to exile in Sardinia.
Once the revolutionaries had helped form a democratic government, the only problem that remained was separatists that sought annexation and even full independence. (more to come).
Adolf Hitler, an Austrian-born politician who had been a participant in World War I, had also helped in the revolution to abdicate Charles I. He had fought in attacks on the Imperial Council. Hitler later became president of Austria in 1940, throughout World War II.
- Main article: Spanish Civil War