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The Republic of Yucatan, or the Second Republic of Yucatan, is a seccessionist state formerly part of Mexico. Its political independence is unrecognized internationally, though it receives support from Guatemala and Cuba. Practically, Yucatan is dependent on Mexico enough to where most locals have called for rejoining the United Mexican States.
The main reason that hasn't happened, and won't seem to happen anytime soon, revolves around the same Yucatan nationalists who sparked the independence movement in the 1980s and the Yucatan War that ended in 1993. The nationalists have radicalized to the point where they have committed acts of terrorism within and outside of Yucatan against Mexican military, political and civilian targets.
South American and Central American drug lords, including some driven out of Mexico by its military in the past few decades, are increasingly using Yucatan as a harbor for their trade. In turn, this has led to increased calls with the Mexican Congress by conservatives to invade the breakaway state, rejoin it with Mexico and take down the radicals and criminals.
It encompasses the former Mexican state of Yucatán.
Yucatan is governed by the Constitution of 1993, which borrows many of its provisions from the Constitution of 1841 which governed the region during its short period of independence from 1841 to 1848.
Pre-Doomsday, 19th century
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The Yucatan and Chiapas uprisings
Doomsday led to an influx of refugees into Yucatán and the Mexican state of Chiapas from Central American nations undergoing chaotic changes in the wake of the Third World War. Indigenous groups within the two Mexican states were unhappy over the perceived incompetence of the Mexican government, and especially the ruling Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI) party, in stemming the refugee surge and its inability to stem the rapidly failing local economy. They saw the chaos as their best chance for Yucatan and Chiapas to separate from Mexico and form their own nations.
Increased protests, and uprisings led President de la Madrid to send Army troops into Chiapas and Yucatan on May 10, 1987. His action is recognized as the unofficial start of the "Yucatan War", the beginning of years of conflict in the region that ultimately would lead to the secession of the Yucatan into a socialist republic and the eventual loss of influence for the long-ruling PRI.
The Yucatan War
The war that came to become known as "Mexico's Vietnam" began in earnest on February 9, 1988, when insurgents launched a series of guerrilla attacks on Army troops throughout Yucatan, killing 15 soldiers and injuring 11 more.
Over the next several years, the Mexican Army - helped by efforts amongst the American refugees to be peaceful despite ongoing tension surrounding their presence, and by the northern states ably patrolling the US border - sent much of its forces into Mexico's southern states and particularly Yucatan.
Aided by outside assistance in weapons and manpower, the insurgents eventually took de facto control of the state in 1992; as more and more Mexican soldiers died in the never-ending conflict, public opinion amongst Mexicans gradually shifted from support for overthrowing the resurgents to leaving Yucatan to fend for itself.
Salinas himself changed his opinion from winning the war at all costs to negotiating with the insurgents, but was opposed by military leaders the entire way. Similarities between Yucatan and American involvement in Vietnam, and pundits and experts alike began to predict a similar fate for the Mexican military. Conflicts between the President, the Congress and the military hampered efforts to fight the war, and eventually led to the insurgents permanently gaining the upper hand over the Mexican military.
Only when it became clear that the military was clearly losing the war and that nothing short of a nuclear bombing would defeat the insurgents, did the politicians and military finally agree on something: the military's gradual withdrawal from the region.
On October 18, 1993, a ceasefire was called.
Yucatan formally declared itself as the Republic of Yucatan the next day and received its first ambassador - from Nicaragua - on October 30. On November 9, Mexican President Salinas and Yucatan independence leaders signed a treaty bringing an end to the war and giving Mexico's formal sanction to the creation of a Yucatan Republic. Mexico formally recognized the new nation on November 21, 1993, allowing the young nation to stand on its own.
It would, but not after many growing pains, and not until Yucatan's leaders realized that for Yucatan to prosper, it would have to tie its economy to the one nation it wished not to be a part of - Mexico.
1994-2003: Uncertain times
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2004: The treaty with Mexico
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Yucatan nationalists' response: terrorism
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Yucatan in 2011
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Due to being cut of from most of the world and coming from a part of Mexico whose economy was heavily based on tourism, Yucatan struggled economically for years. The beautiful beaches of the Mexican Caribbean were empty and rarely saw any tourists due to the political situation.
After "reconciling" with Mexico in the wake of the signing of the economic treaty with Mexico in 2004, the beaches and resorts began to reopen, and for a while it seemed that Yucatan's economy would gain a massive boost.
However, subsequent terrorist actions by Yucatan nationalists have largely shut down the fledgling tourism industry, and once again the beaches and resorts sit empty.
Yucatan's economy has become mainly based on growing coffee and some tropical fruits in the fertile regions of the peninsula.
Being an unrecognized state by much of the world, the Republic of Yucatan's international relations consist mostly of aid sent by Cuba and Guatemala. It also has diplomatic relationships with Honduras and Nicaragua.