The Republic of Romania was a short-lived republic formed after the Treaty of Athens mandated its independence from Turkey following the Black Sea War, earning its formal recognition by the French bloc in January of 1961. Its provisional government, led by Nicolae Ceausescu for the majority of the 1960's, never formed a solid permanent government and three constitutions were thrown out without being passed (1962, 1964 and 1967). In 1968, the Central Intelligence Agency, the foreign intelligence service of the United States, allegedly helped fix the vote in order to drive Ceausescu out of power. A coup by various business and military interests backed by the Americans and Turks in early 1970 drove the short-lived Constante Maccel government out and the Turkish Army occupied the southern half of the country in 1971 to "stablize" the region.

The 1971 Romanian Crisis nearly sparked another war with France, but the Turkish-backed puppet government crushed a pro-Romanian protest, had Ceausescu hung for treason (despite his innocence in the non-existent rebellion) and reabsorbed Romania in 1972 after the government collapsed under foreign and internal pressure.

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