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The Republic of Mexico traces her rich cultural roots back to the Maya and Aztec Civilizations of Central Mexico. The Aztec Capital, Tenochtitlan, was captured by the Spaniards in 1521, marking the long period of initial Spanish Rule, known as New Spain. From New Spain the Spanish conquered huge portions of the Americas, as far north as Santa Fe (in the United States) and as far south as the Tierra del Fuego at the tip of South America.
In 1807, Napoleon I invaded Spain and declared his brother King. This period of instability in the Spanish Main allowed for Mexican Nationals to engage in a War on Independence that lasted from 1810 to 1821. At the end of the War, General Agustin de Iturbide declared himself Emperor (his reign lasted only 18 months, when he was replaced by President Guadalupe Victoria.)
The Oregon Wars and Spanish Reconquest
In 1846, Britain and the United States declared War on one another over the disputed Oregon Country. Seeking to destroy the United States by instigating a two-front War, the British Empire signs the Treaty of London with Mexico. On June 27, 1846, Mexico invades the Southwestern United States. The United States responds by tempting Czar Nicholas II into the War. Following this move, the United States deals a deadly blow to Mexican Independence--on August 16, 1846, President Polk repeals the Monroe Doctrine and Spain joins the Russo-American forces. As Russian, American, and Spanish forces push into Mexico, the rebellion in the Yucatan boils over--Mexico is overwhelmed by three armies and a strong revolt in the south. On January 23, 1847, the Mexican Government surrenders. Mexico is divvied up accordingly--the United States annexes huge portions of northern Mexico, Spain recolonizes central and southern Mexico, while the Yucatan is given independence.